Reports


  • 14-December-2018

    English

    OECD Competition Assessment Reviews: Portugal - Volume II - Self-Regulated Professions

    Several of Portugal’s product markets remain among the most heavily regulated in the OECD, not least in the services sector. As vital inputs into the business sector, the liberal professions, such as legal services, architects and engineers, generate up to 1.8 times their value in outputs when they are used by firms. Having structural flaws such as access restrictions and reserved tasks, adversely affect the availability of such services for firms, there hence their ability to effectively compete in the markets. Regulatory restrictions also hamper innovation, efficiency and productivity within the liberal professions themselves. Against this backdrop, this report analyses Portuguese regulations for 13 self-regulated liberal professions (lawyers, solicitors, notaries, bailiffs, architects, engineers, technical engineers, certified accountants, auditors, economists, customs brokers, nutritionists and pharmacists). Using the OECD Competition Assessment Toolkit to structure the analysis, the project analysed 923 pieces of legislation. The report identifies 323 legal provisions which could be removed or amended to lift regulatory barriers to competition. The analysis of the Portuguese legislation and professions has been complemented by research into international experience and wide consultations with stakeholders from the public and private sectors. The OECD recommendations aim to remove or modify the identified provisions in order to be less restrictive in the access or exercise of the professions, to the benefit of businesses and consumers alike, while still achieving the policy objectives as stated by the Portuguese government. This report identifies the sources of those benefits and, where possible, provides quantitative estimates.
  • 14-December-2018

    English

    OECD Competition Assessment Reviews: Portugal - Volume I - Inland and Maritime Transports and Ports

    Several of Portugal’s product markets remain among the most heavily regulated in the OECD, not least in the services sector. The inland and maritime transports in Portugal are a vital part of the business environment, ensuring the movement of goods and passengers and allowing for inputs into the business sector to arrive when and where they are needed. Regulatory restrictions on entry, on the market structure, and on company formation adversely affect the ability of firms, whether providers or customers, to effectively compete in the markets. Regulatory restrictions also hamper innovation, efficiency and productivity. Against this backdrop, this report analyses Portuguese regulations for road, railway and maritime transport and many anxilary services (such as vehicle inspection centres), as well as Portugal’s ports. Using the OECD Competition Assessment Toolkit to structure the analysis, the project analysed 904 pieces of legislation. The report identifies 405 legal provisions which could be removed or amended to lift regulatory barriers to competition. The analysis of the Portuguese legislation has been complemented by research into international experience and wide consultations with stakeholders from the public and private sectors. The OECD recommendations aim to remove or modify the restrictive provisions in order to benefit businesses and consumers, while still achieving the policy of the Portuguese government. This report identifies the sources of those benefits and, where possible, provides quantitative estimates.
  • 11-December-2018

    English

    Foreign bribery enforcement: What happens to the public officials on the receiving end?

    This study explores whether there is a "flip side" to enforcement actions that ended in sanctions for the supply-side of a foreign bribery transaction. It focuses on what happened on the receiving end of this transaction. That is to say, were the public officials in the demand-side country also sanctioned or otherwise disciplined?

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  • 28-November-2018

    English

    OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Viet Nam 2018

    This review uses the OECD Policy Framework for Investment to present an assessment of the investment climate in Viet Nam and to discuss the challenges and opportunities faced by the government of Viet Nam in its reform efforts. It includes chapters on foreign investment trends and performance, the entry and operations of foreign investors, the legal framework for investment, corporate governance and competition policy, tax reforms, investment promotion and facilitation, infrastructure connectivity, investment framework for green growth and policies to promote and enable responsible business conduct.
  • 13-November-2018

    English, PDF, 832kb

    OECD Anti-Bribery Convention: Country Contact Points for International Co-operation

    This document contains a list of country contact points for Parties to the Anti-Bribery Convention. This list can be used to obtain information from the relevant authorities for the purposes of consultation, mutual legal assistance and extradition requests.

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  • 12-November-2018

    English

    Subnational Public-Private Partnerships - Meeting Infrastructure Challenges

    This report focuses on the challenges of governing infrastructure investment and public-private partnerships (PPPs) at the subnational level. Subnational governments – cities and regions – play a vital role in the infrastructure landscape. Infrastructure needs in energy, transport, water and telecommunications are substantial, estimated at USD 6.3 trillion per year between 2016 and 2030. In a tight fiscal environment, it is critical to diversify sources of financing for infrastructure investment and PPPs represent an alternative to traditional government procurement with the potential to improve value for money. However, PPPs are complex and sometimes risky arrangements that require capacity that is not always readily available in government, in particular at the subnational level. This report examines the challenges of using PPPs at the subnational level and ways to address them. It does so by focusing on three case studies: subnational PPPs in France, local Private Finance Initiative (PFI) projects in the United Kingdom, and PPPs in Virginia (United States).
  • 12-November-2018

    English

    Developing Robust Project Pipelines for Low-Carbon Infrastructure

    This report aims to provide policy makers with a comprehensive examination of 'project pipelines', a common concept in infrastructure planning and investment discussions, and one which has become a focal point in countries’ efforts to implement their climate commitments. The analysis is structured around some basic but important guiding questions, including: What is meant by project pipelines? How can we characterise them? What concrete approaches and actions can governments and other public institutions take to develop project pipelines and mobilise private finance into these projects? This close look at pipelines suggests that they can only be as robust as the investment-ready and bankable projects that constitute them, as effective as institutions that deliver them, and as ambitious as the objectives to which they are linked. Through a series of case studies, the report highlights that while governments and public institutions are already taking actions to develop robust pipelines in a range of country settings, these pipelines nevertheless need to be strengthened significantly to meet long-term climate mitigation objectives. Good practices pioneered by the countries and actors in the case studies can provide models for governments to adapt and bolster their own efforts.
  • 5-November-2018

    English, PDF, 732kb

    Current trends in investment policies related to national security and public order

    Over the past decades, most countries, especially advanced economies, have eliminated barriers to capital inflows. This has created vast opportunities for home and host economies as well as for businesses. With these opportunities came occasional risks, not least potential risks for the host country’s national security or public order.

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  • 5-November-2018

    English

    Investment policies related to national security and public order

    While foreign investment supports growth and development, creates jobs and enhances welfare, it carries a potential risk for the host country’s national security or public order. This is why international instruments and agreements recognise countries’ rights to manage such risks.

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  • 31-October-2018

    English, PDF, 1,167kb

    FDI in Figures, October 2018

    31 October 2018 - Global FDI flows fell 35% to USD 432 billion in the first half of 2018 compared to the previous 6 months, hitting their lowest level since the first half of 2013. FDI flows dropped by 9% in Q1 2018 and by 38% in Q2, to USD 266 billion and USD 166 billion respectively.

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