Ready for the Next Crisis? Investing in Health System Resilience

The COVID-19 pandemic had massive consequences for societies and health systems across the OECD and beyond. Health systems were not resilient enough. Resilient health systems plan and are ready for shocks, such as pandemics, economic crises or the effects of climate change. They are able to minimise the negative consequences of crises, recover as quickly as possible, and adapt to become better performing and more prepared. Smart, targeted investments in health system resilience are needed to improve health and ensure the next shock is less disruptive and costly. This report reviews the lessons of the COVID-19 pandemic and applies them to build policy recommendations to ensure the global community is ready for the next crisis. The reviews and recommendations cover health system issues – including workforce, digitalisation, continuity of care and mental health – and other topics, including long-term care, supply chains and international co-operation.

Available from February 23, 2023

In series:OECD Health Policy Studiesview more titles


Acronyms and abbreviations
Executive summary
Key findings and recommendations
Investigating resilience in other sectors
COVID‑19 outcomes across OECD countries
Containment and mitigation strategies for pandemics
Lessons from the COVID-19 critical care surge
Preserving continuity of care
Strengthening resilience in long‑term care
Protecting mental health
Managing elective care and waiting times
Supporting health workforce recovery and resilience
Securing supply chains
Building the data and digital foundations of health systems
Incentivising the Development of Global Public Goods for Health
Investing in health system resilience
OECD Resilience of Health Systems Questionnaire 2022
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