Pension systems


Pensions at a Glance 2023

OECD and G20 Indicators

The 2023 edition of Pensions at a Glance highlights the pension reforms undertaken by OECD countries over the last two years. It includes a special chapter focusing on pension provisions for hazardous or arduous work. It describes existing rules, characterises recent policy trends and assesses the design and functioning of early-retirement rules for hazardous or arduous jobs given changing working conditions and ageing pressure on pension systems. This edition also updates information on the key features of pension provision in OECD and G20 countries and provides projections of retirement income for today’s workers. It offers indicators covering the design of pension systems, pension entitlements, the demographic and economic context in which pension systems operate, incomes and poverty of older people, the finances of retirement income systems and private pensions.

Published on December 13, 2023 Latest available edition in: French, German, Korean

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Executive summary
Key facts and figures (Infographic)
Recent pension reforms
Pension provisions for workers in hazardous or arduous jobs
Design of pension systems6 chapters available
Architecture of national pension systems
Basic, targeted and minimum contributory pensions
Eligibility and indexation for first-tier benefits
Mandatory earnings-related pensions
Current retirement ages
Future retirement ages
Pension entitlements for the base case8 chapters available
Methodology and assumptions
Gross pension replacement rates
Gross replacement rates: Public vs. Private, Mandatory vs. Voluntary schemes
Tax treatment of pensions and pensioners
Net pension replacement rates
Net pension replacement rates: Mandatory and voluntary schemes
Gross pension wealth
Net pension wealth
Pension entitlements for alternative scenarios6 chapters available
Gross pension entitlements for couples
Impact of unemployment breaks on pension entitlements
Impact of childcare breaks on pension entitlements
Impact of different earnings profile on pension entitlements
Sensitivity of replacement rates to changes in the economic assumptions
Theoretical relative pensions of the self-employed
Demographic and economic context7 chapters available
Life expectancy
Demographic old-age to working-age ratio
Employment rates of older workers and gender gaps
Changes in employment rates of older workers
Effective age of labour market exit
Expected life years after labour market exit
Incomes and poverty of older people4 chapters available
Incomes of older people
Old-age income poverty
Old-age income inequality
Average wage
Finances of retirement-income systems4 chapters available
Mandatory pension contributions
Public expenditure on pensions
Private expenditure on pensions
Long-term projections of public pension expenditure
Asset-backed pension systems8 chapters available
Participation in pension plans
Contributions paid into pension plans
Assets earmarked for retirement
Allocation of assets
Investment performance
Landscape of pension plans
Fees charged to members of defined contribution plans
Funding ratios of defined benefit plans
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