Triangular co-operation

Triangular co-operation is when countries, international organisations, civil society, private sector, private philanthropy and others work together to co-create flexible, cost-effective and innovative solutions for reaching the sustainable development goals (SDGs).

A shape of things to come?

Triangular co-operation makes up a small, but growing proportion of overall Official Development Assistance (ODA). We work with partners to gather evidence on its potential for accelerating sustainable development in developing countries.

How does triangular co-operation work?

At the OECD we see the combination of three roles, which may revolve throughout the implementation of the initiative, as the common denominator in triangular initiatives:

  • The beneficiary partner seeks support to tackle a specific development challenge;
  • The pivotal partner has proven experience in the issue, and shares its resources, knowledge and expertise;
  • The facilitating partner helps connect the beneficiary and the pivotal partners, supporting their collaboration financially and technically.

The roles may change throughout the life of a project.

  • There can be several actors at each edge of the triangle.
  • Those actors may be representing countries, international organisations, civil society, private sector, trade unions or private philanthrophy.


Our Work


We assess the successes and challenges in triangular co-operation.
We also maintain a one-stop shop Triangular Co-operation library where all analysts and institutions can make their reports available.

Data and evidence

We collect data, project documents, evaluation reports and other publications on how triangular co-operation works.


We facilitate the discussion of triangular co-operation actors in international meetings.

Policy support

We produce tools and guidelines and we support countries and stakeholders reinforcing their systems to enable effective triangular co-operation.


The OECD is committed to promoting triangular co-operation globally and we are a core group member of the Global Partnership Initiative (GPI) on Effective Triangular Co-operation.