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Publications & Documents


  • 26-April-2022

    English

    Africa’s Urbanisation Dynamics 2022 - The Economic Power of Africa’s Cities

    This report provides a new perspective on Africa’s urban economies that is unique in its breadth and level of detail. Based on data from more than 4 million individuals and firms in 2 600 cities across 34 countries, it presents compelling evidence that urbanisation contributes to better economic outcomes and higher living standards. It shows that across most socio-economic dimensions, cities significantly outperform the countries in which they are located. In Africa, urbanisation accounts for approximately 30% of the growth in per capita gross domestic product (GDP) over the past 20 years. Importantly, the gains from urbanisation on economic performance and quality of life extend beyond city boundaries, also benefiting rural areas. The report also shows that transnational clusters of cities are emerging along coasts as well as inland, offering new opportunities for economic development. Based on these findings, the report sets forth policy priorities at national and local levels that are essential to realise the potential of urbanisation. Among these, it argues that the role of cities should be fully anchored in national development planning. Moreover, local governments need greater fiscal and administrative capacity to become key actors in economic development.
  • 25-April-2022

    English

    Assessing Tax Compliance and Illicit Financial Flows in South Africa

    Illicit financial flows (IFFs) such as tax evasion are a major policy challenge for developing and emerging economies, in particular as the COVID-19 pandemic has drained domestic resources. This report presents results from a joint project between the OECD and the National Treasury of South Africa, which assesses tax compliance and IFFs in South Africa. The report provides an overview of macroeconomic, tax and fiscal developments in South Africa since the global financial crisis. It discusses the concepts of IFFs, how they relate to the South African context and provides an overview of South Africa’s participation in multilateral initiatives to combat tax evasion. It also provides a quantitative analysis of tax compliance and IFFs over time amid a variety of tax transparency initiatives implemented in South Africa. Finally, the report examines the effectiveness of tax transparency initiatives such as voluntary disclosure programmes, and looks into income and wealth characteristics of applicants to these programmes.
  • 22-April-2022

    English

    Delivering Quality Services to All in Alentejo - Preparing Regions for Demographic Change

    This publication is part of the OECD workstream on Preparing Regions for Demographic Change. It elaborates a case study for the Portuguese region of Alentejo and focuses on improving the delivery of educational services taking into account the multi-level governance context. The study highlights the need to better articulate and co-ordinate the delivery of educational services among levels of government to improve access and quality. It also sheds light on the decisive role that geography plays and the importance of adopting a spatial lens to mitigate the rising inequality present in Portugal in access to education services. Alentejo is a rural region that expects to lose 30% of its population between 2020 and 2080, hence it needs to put in place forward-looking and effective policy levers to delivery sustainable education services to citizens living in rural communities.
  • 21-April-2022

    English

    OECD Development Co-operation Peer Reviews: Portugal 2022

    The OECD’s Development Assistance Committee (DAC) conducts peer reviews of individual members once every five to six years. Reviews seek to improve the quality and effectiveness of members’ development co-operation, highlighting good practices and recommending improvements. Portugal mobilises its whole of government expertise with a strong focus on partner country ownership. Building on long-standing and close bilateral relations, it concentrates its funding on countries most in need. Through effective international advocacy, the country champions triangular co-operation and has fostered agreement amongst European Union (EU) members on issues such as strengthening Team Europe’s commitment to human development when it held the Presidency of the EU Council. However, Portugal can make more out of the wide participation of state and non-state actors in its development co-operation. This peer review provides a set of recommendations to improve co-ordination across government, pull bilateral efforts together, focus more on outcomes and take action to increase official development assistance (ODA).
  • 20-April-2022

    English

    Multi-dimensional Review of the Western Balkans - From Analysis to Action

    The Western Balkans region has come a long way over the last two decades in achieving economic and social progress. Its people are the region’s greatest asset. Yet faced with a lack of opportunities many, particularly the young, decide to emigrate. To make the most of its future the region must invest in its attractiveness as a place to live, work and invest in. This report comes as a follow-up to the earlier publication Multi-dimensional Review of the Western Balkans: Assessing Opportunities and Constraints. It builds on an extensive peer-learning process that brought together experts from across the region and beyond. The report provides suggestions and recommendations for three strategic priorities that can help create opportunities and boost the quality of life. First, better education and more competencies are the basis for raising productivity, creating jobs, encouraging civic participation and making the region an attractive destination. Second, social cohesion is the bedrock of resilient societies and requires stronger labour market policies and effective social protection that can cushion people’s hardship and provide them with new opportunities. Third, cleaner air and more sustainable energy are indispensable for boosting the region’s quality of life and economic opportunities.
  • 15-April-2022

    English

    Regulatory impact assessment

    OECD work and publications on the topic of regulatory impact analysis (RIA) and country guidance on conducting impact assessments.

  • 12-April-2022

    English

    Brain-computer interfaces and the governance system - Upstream approaches

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are in a period of rapid development and offer significant potential for the promotion of health and well-being. At the same time, they raise a range of unique ethical, legal, and policy questions, and few BCI-specific rules exist in a fragmented regulatory landscape. This report aims to help develop a responsible and anticipatory governance approach to promote innovation while shaping the trajectory of technology through a set of mechanisms, including (i) soft law, (ii) standardisation and ethics-by-design approaches, (iii) corporate self-governance, and (iv) participatory experiments for upstream governance.
  • 5-April-2022

    English

    Establishing Regulatory Impact Assessment in Mauritius

    As a small, open economy, Mauritius needs a well-performing regulatory system that provides necessary protections while enabling the development of trade and investment and limiting administrative burdens. A robust regulatory impact assessment (RIA) framework can enhance Mauritius’ business environment and attractiveness as a trade and investment partner. In particular, RIA can help Mauritius strengthen its rule-making framework, for example by increasing scrutiny and taking a more evidence-based approach to rulemaking. This report presents OECD recommendations on to how establish a RIA framework in Mauritius. These recommendations are based upon an analysis of the country’s strengths and challenges, as well as extensive engagement with stakeholders. The recommendations also draw on lessons learnt from RIA implementation in a range of countries and an initial benchmarking of RIA-related best practices and guidance material from various relevant jurisdictions.
  • 22-March-2022

    English

    The Strategic and Responsible Use of Artificial Intelligence in the Public Sector of Latin America and the Caribbean

    Governments can use artificial intelligence (AI) to design better policies and make better and more targeted decisions, enhance communication and engagement with citizens, and improve the speed and quality of public services. The Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region is seeking to leverage the immense potential of AI to promote the digital transformation of the public sector. The OECD, in collaboration with CAF, Development Bank of Latin America, prepared this report to help national governments in the LAC region understand the current regional baseline of activities and capacities for AI in the public sector; to identify specific approaches and actions they can take to enhance their ability to use this emerging technology for efficient, effective and responsive governments; and to collaborate across borders in pursuit of a regional vision for AI in the public sector. This report incorporates a stocktaking of each country’s strategies and commitments around AI in the public sector, including their alignment with the OECD AI Principles. It also includes an analysis of efforts to build key governance capacities and put in place critical enablers for AI in the public sector. It concludes with a series of recommendations for governments in the LAC region.
  • 21-March-2022

    English

    The OECD proposes a prototype for the Blue Dot Network to operationalise quality infrastructure projects

    The OECD has released a proposal for a prototype of the Blue Dot Network certification framework for infrastructure projects that are economically, environmentally and socially sustainable, resilient, open and transparent.

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