Développement régional, urbain et rural

OECD Mining Regions and Cities









 Improving well-being standards in economic, social and environmental dimensions for regions and cities specialised in mining and extractive industries 



What's the issue?

The energy transition will increase the demand for minerals, but mining must also adjust to green and digital shifts. As mining is concentrated in specific territories, this activity and its adaptation to global changes shape regional development. Addressing the challenges and opportunities of mining specialisation requires a subnational policy approach.

  • Energy Transition: Increased mineral demand amidst green and digital shifts
  • Geographic Concentration: Mining's localized nature leads to unique regional issues
  • Policy Adaptation: Need for targeted policies considering global changes and local contexts


What can the OECD offer?

The OECD's Mining Cities and Regions Initiative serves as a platform for exchanging good practices and promoting international standards aimed at improving well-being outcomes in mining regions. The initiative also includes: 

    • Case studies with on-site missions to promote forward-thinking, and collaborate with various stakeholders in formulating policy recommendations
    • Events and workshops to share good practices and experiences
    • Data and policy toolbox to benchmark good practices in mining regions across the economic, social and environmental dimensions

 Download the flyer

OECD-DG Reform Project: Enhancing EU Mining Regions to Support the Green Transition and Secure EU Mineral Supplies

The global green transition demands significant supplies of critical minerals. This study will support 10 EU mining regions in sustainably securing their supply, while improving wellbeing for their populations.

More information


The Case of Pilbara, Australia

The Pilbara is a world leader in iron ore production and has the fourth lowest unemployment rate across OECD mining regions. Despite the wealth generated by extractive industries, the Pilbara faces important challenges to improve its attractiveness and well-being standards, especially for First Nations and non-mining workers. This study examines how the Pilbara can shape a more inclusive and sustainable development that supports economic diversification and prioritises improving the living conditions of its communities, particularly First Nations.


Policy highlights

Project flyer


Mining Regions and Cities in the Region of Antofagasta, Chile

Antofagasta is a world leader in copper and lithium production and has the highest PIB per capita. The surge in global demand for minerals and renewable energies has led Antofagasta’s mining industry into a renovated phase of development. Yet communities in the region keep lagging on a number of well-being dimensions. This study presents the diagnosis and recommendations for the development of the first-ever mining strategy in the region, which prioritises local well-being and supports a more competitive and sustainable mining sector.


Policy highlights: English | Spanish

Watch the video of the development strategy

The Case of Andalusia, Spain

As Spain’s largest mining producer, Andalusia can leverage its potential in metallic and non-metallic mining to reduce its relatively high unemployment rate and support income and innovation convergence with the national average. This study identifies how Andalusia can strengthen its institutional framework and its mining strategy to enhance the regional benefits from its mining sector, while assisting the EU in achieving their climate goals.


Policy Highlights: English | Spanish

Watch the launch video: English | Spanish

The Case of Upper Norrland in Sweden

Västerbotten and Norrbotten are major mining regions in Upper Norrland, containing the majority of Sweden’s active mines and producing most of the iron ore in Europe. These regions are frontrunners in environmentally sustainable mining activities. This case study focuses on practices to improve the interaction of mining innovation processes with the local economy, while reducing land use conflicts and ensuring better engagement with the Indigenous Sami peoples.


Policy Highlights

Watch the launch video

Case of Outokumpu, North Karelia in Finland

The municipality of Outukumpu has had a positive transition from mining to manufacturing. However, the region needs to further attract business and workers for a more diversified economy. This study explores how Outokumpu can leverage its mineral know-how and capital to unlock long-term and resilient business opportunities locally.


Policy Highlights


Toolkit to measure well-being in mining regions

This paper develops a framework to measure well-being standards in OECD regions specialising in mining activities. It explores the relevant indicators to measure well-being for selected OECD mining regions across the three dimensions of well-being: economic, social and environmental and compares their trends with those of other regions.

Read the paper

Enhancing Well-being in Mining Regions - Key Issues and Lessons for Developing Indicators

This paper provides analytical background and input for discussion for the 3rd Meeting of OECD Regions and Cities in Skellefteå, Sweden. It proposes the development of a new set of indicators to measure the well-being of mining regions and asks partners to provide feedback and share leading practice examples related to the well-being challenges identified. 

Read the paper

Leading practices for resource benefit sharing and development for and with Indigenous communities

This OECD working paper summarises leading practices for benefit sharing, workforce development, and business and governance development for and with Indigenous peoples.

Read the paper

2024 OECD Conference of Mining Regions and Cities - Greater Sudbury, Canada

The 2024 OECD Conference of Mining Regions and Cities Conference will take place on 8-11 October 2024 in Greater Sudbury, Canada. This year’s conference will gather stakeholders from across the public and private sectors, academia, civil society organisations, and Indigenous representatives to discuss well-being in mining regions, focusing on two pillars:

  1. Partnering for sustained development in mining regions
  2. Future-proofing regional mineral supply for the energy transition

Draft agenda

More information

4th - Karratha, Australia, 20-23 June 2023

The OECD and the City of Karratha hosted the 4th OECD Meeting of Mining Regions and Cities on 20-23 June 2023. A diverse representation of policy makers, industry representatives, academics, and civil society organisations gathered to discuss the challenges and opportunities of mining and regional development. Attendance was high with 245 participants from 12 countries.

The two-day conference focused on two pillars:

1. Diversification and green value chains

2. Liveable and sustainable mining communities 


3rd - Skellefteå, Sweden, 2019

The 3rd OECD Meeting of Mining Regions and Cities was held in Skellefteä, Sweden in June 2019. The event in Skelleftea focused on how mining can be a driver of improved regional well-being and also contribute to environmentally sustainable regions for future and current generations.



Pre-conference record


2nd - Darwin, Northern Territory Australia, 2018

The 2nd OECD Meeting of Mining Regions and Cities was held in Darwin, Australia on 21-22 November. The event included a special focus on Indigenous peoples, and mining, resources and regional development in the context of Southeast Asia and helped define the forward plan for the OECD Mining Regions and Cities initiative.



1st - Antofagasta, Chile, 2017

The first OECD Mining Regions event was held in Antofagasta, Chile in October 2017 and was attended by 275 participants across 14 countries.



More information





Enhancing EU Mining Regional Ecosystems to Support the Green Transition and Secure Mineral Raw Materials Supply

On 23-24 May 2024 in Chalkia, Central Greece, the OECD, in collaboration with DG reform, presented the main takeaways from the regional visits for the project “Enhancing EU Mining Regional Ecosystems to Support the Green Transition and Secure Mineral Raw Materials Supply.” The meeting was attended by people in person and online with representation from the 10 regions represented in the project. The event presented the main findings of the ten field visits carried out during the last 8 months across all regions with common themes including skills and attraction, social perception and environmental considerations, natural resource governance, innovation and circularity, and infrastructure. 

Agenda | Main takeaways  |  Presentation


Webinar: ESG to deliver well-being in resource-rich regions: the role of the private sector

This event brought together a wide range of participants – from the mining and forestry sector to municipal representatives and Indigenous leaders - to hear how the alignment of private sector’s ESG (Environmental, Social, and Governance) initiatives with regional development policies and community-led initiatives can support sustainable growth and resilience at the subnational level.




EU Mining Regions Kick-off Meeting

The kick-off meeting of the OECD-DG Reform TSI project Enhancing EU mining regional ecosystems to support the green transition and secure mineral raw materials supply gathered representatives from the ten participating regions in the project, the OECD and the EU Commission, as well as experts to discuss the scope of this project and relevance to support EU mining regions in attaining a sustainable development for the EU.





The ten participating regions are:

  • Finland: Lapland, North Karelia, Oulu, Kainuu, Central Ostrobothnia
  • Greece: Region of Central Greece
  • Portugal: Centro Portugal, Alentejo
  • Spain: Andalusia
  • Sweden: Örebro



Launch: Toolkit to measure well-being in mining regions

Read the paper

Kick-off event - Towards a Regional Mining Strategy in Antofagasta, Chile

Description: Between 24-28 October,  the OECD conducted the first mission of the OECD mining regions and cities supporting Antofagasta, Chile to develop the first regional mining strategy. The mission promoted several spaces of dialogue among mining companies (big and small), providers, academia and communities (e.g. Indigenous representatives), including:

For more information visit the website of the project


The virtual discussion was organised on 23 June 2020 jointly with MIREU to explore the impacts of the coronavirus pandemic on mining regions and cities and the responses and opportunities emerging from this crisis in the short and long term.  This virtual discussion served as a platform to exchange experiences and best practices from OECD mining regions and cities in the context of the COVID-19 crisis. 

For more information visit the MIREU website.


OECD Mining Regions and Cities Workshop Seville, Andalucía, Spain

In October 2019 the OECD Mining Regions and Cities Initiative held a workshop on: fostering local innovation and developing value chains in a mining context. The workshop was the first step in developing an OECD Mining Regions and Cities Case Study of Andalucía. 

Read the summary record  



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