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  • 26-June-2024

    English

    Western Balkans Competitiveness Outlook 2024: Regional Profile

    Inclusive and sustainable economic growth in the six Western Balkan (WB6) economies depends on greater economic competitiveness. Although the gap is closing gradually, the standards of living in WB6 are well below those of the OECD and EU. Accelerating the rate of socio-economic convergence will require a holistic and growth oriented approach to policy making. This is the fourth study of the region (formerly under the title 'Competitiveness in South East Europe') and it comprehensively assesses policy reforms in the WB6 economies across 15 policy areas key to strengthening their competitiveness. It enables WB6 economies to compare economic performance against regional peers, as well as EU-OECD good practices and standards, and to design future policies based on rich evidence and actionable policy recommendations. The regional profile presents assessment findings across five policy clusters crucial to accelerating socio-economic convergence of the WB6 by fostering regional co-operation: business environment, skills, infrastructure and connectivity, digital transformation and greening. Economy-specific profiles complement the regional assessment, offering each WB6 economy an in-depth analysis of their policies supporting competitiveness. They also track the implementation of the previous 2021 study's recommendations and provide additional ones tailored to the economies’ evolving challenges. These recommendations aim to inform structural economic reforms and facilitate the region’s socio-economic convergence towards the standards of the EU and OECD.
  • 13-June-2024

    English

    Managing rising subnational fiscal risks

    Subnational governments face a range of fiscal risks, defined as events whose realisation leads to significant deviations of revenue and/or expenditure from budgeted amounts. Fiscal risks reflect unforeseen macroeconomic developments, as well as structural shifts in the economy, including digitalisation and climate change. Sound management of these risks requires a comprehensive framework involving their identification, analysis, mitigation, sharing or transfer, and prudent accommodation. Within this framework, subnational governments need to strengthen their capacity to manage their own risks, but national governments also have a role to play. This includes mitigating risks created by national policies, minimising moral hazard in supporting subnational governments affected by exogenous shocks, and using their legislative powers to avert excessive subnational risk-taking. Effective intergovernmental cooperation is key to the sound management of subnational fiscal risks. The paper discusses how different levels of government can work together in applying this framework to the main types of risks. It also provides some examples of good international practices in the management of risks.
  • 12-juin-2024

    Français

    Revue des qualités des IDE en Tunisie - Stimuler la productivité et créer de meilleurs emplois

    Cette revue examine la contribution des investissements directs étrangers (IDE) au développement durable en Tunisie. La revue fait appel à un grand nombre de sources de données nationales et internationales pour examiner la contribution des IDE à la productivité, à l'innovation, à la qualité de l'emploi et au développement des compétences. Le rapport fournit également des considérations de politiques publiques pour améliorer l'impact des IDE sur le développement durable en Tunisie.
  • 28-May-2024

    English

    Strengthening FDI and SME Linkages in Czechia

    This report assesses the potential for linkages between foreign direct investment (FDI) and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Czechia, and provides policy recommendations to foster productivity and innovation spillovers to the local economy. The report examines the quality of investment that the country attracts, the productive and innovative capacities of Czech SMEs, and a broad range of economic, business and policy conditions that can strengthen knowledge and technology diffusion from foreign multinationals to domestic enterprises. It also assesses Czechia’s institutional environment and policy mix across the areas of international investment, SMEs and entrepreneurship, innovation and regional development, noting areas for policy reform. The report includes a regional focus on the potential for FDI and SME linkages and spillovers in South Moravia and Usti.
  • 30-April-2024

    English

    National Contact Point for Responsible Business Conduct Peer Reviews: Estonia 2024

    This document is the peer review report of the National Contact Point (NCP) of Estonia. The objectives of NCP peer reviews are to assess that the NCP is functioning and operating in accordance with the core effectiveness criteria set out in the implementation procedures; to identify the NCP’s strengths and possibilities for improvement; to make recommendations for improvement; and to serve as a learning tool for all NCPs involved. The peer review of the NCP of Estonia was conducted by a team of reviewers from the NCPs of Argentina, Canada, and Israel, along with representatives of the OECD Secretariat.
  • 30-April-2024

    English

    National Contact Point for Responsible Business Conduct Peer Reviews: Poland 2024

    This document is the peer review report of the National Contact Point (NCP) of Poland. The objectives of NCP peer reviews are to assess that the NCP is functioning and operating in accordance with the core effectiveness criteria set out in the implementation procedures; to identify the NCP’s strengths and possibilities for improvement; to make recommendations for improvement; and to serve as a learning tool for all NCPs involved. The peer review of the NCP of Poland was conducted by a team of reviewers from the NCPs of Bulgaria, Germany, the United States, and Ukraine as observer, along with representatives of the OECD Secretariat.
  • 30-April-2024

    English

    National Contact Point for Responsible Business Conduct Peer Reviews: Hungary 2024

    Governments adhering to the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises are required to set up a National Contact Point (NCP) that functions in a visible, accessible, transparent and accountable manner. This report contains a peer review of the Hungarian NCP, mapping its strengths and accomplishments and also identifying opportunities for improvement.
  • 30-April-2024

    English

    National Contact Point for Responsible Business Conduct Peer Reviews: Türkiye 2024

    This document is the peer review report of the National Contact Point (NCP) of Türkiye. The objectives of NCP peer reviews are to assess that the NCP is functioning and operating in accordance with the core effectiveness criteria set out in the implementation procedures; to identify the NCP’s strengths and possibilities for improvement; to make recommendations for improvement; and to serve as a learning tool for all NCPs involved. The peer review of the NCP of Türkiye was conducted by a team of reviewers from the NCPs of Luxembourg and Peru, along with representatives of the OECD Secretariat.
  • 30-April-2024

    English

    National Contact Point for Responsible Business Conduct Peer Reviews: Kazakhstan 2024

    This document is the peer review report of the National Contact Point (NCP) of Kazakhstan. The objectives of NCP peer reviews are to assess that the NCP is functioning and operating in accordance with the core effectiveness criteria set out in the implementation procedures; to identify the NCP’s strengths and possibilities for improvement; to make recommendations for improvement; and to serve as a learning tool for all NCPs involved. The peer review of the NCP of Kazakhstan was conducted by a team of reviewers from the NCPs of Egypt, France, and Korea, along with representatives of the OECD Secretariat.
  • 25-April-2024

    English

    Concentration of DeFi’s liquidity - Evidence from Decentralised Exchanges (DEXs) and Automated Market Makers (AMMs)

    Decentralised exchanges (DEXs) are on-chain platforms where traders can exchange one crypto-asset for another. DEXs play an increasingly important role in the decentralised finance (DeFi) market, particularly in the aftermath of the recent downturn in the crypto-asset market. This working paper explores the characteristics of DEXs and identifies areas of possible concentration in decentralised exchanges activity and potential associated risks. To substantiate the analysis, it uses an original on-chain dataset covering the largest DEXs. The paper reveals an increased concentration within DeFi trading in the sample observed, which could exacerbate vulnerabilities already present in DeFi markets.
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