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Publications & Documents


  • 20-December-2021

    English

    The fiscal implications of strategic investment funds

    Strategic investment funds (SIFs) are instruments of economic and financial policy, and the operations of these funds have important fiscal implications. These implications span the full cycle of the SIFs’ operations, from funding, through capital allocation, to operations and maintenance of the invested assets. SIFs with a capacity to deploy capital efficiently have the potential to increase the effectiveness of the public expenditure programmes in the SIFs’ respective home countries. However, the establishment and operations of SIFs also carry important fiscal risks, which need to be recognised and addressed. This paper considers the flows of capital into and out of SIFs, as well as the relationship of these flows to the fiscal framework and macro-fiscal context of the SIFs’ home countries. It also looks at the fiscal liabilities that can result from SIFs’ activities, and from their possible insolvency and bankruptcy, offering suggestions for how these risks can be mitigated.
  • 15-December-2021

    English

    Revenue Statistics in Africa 2021

    The publication Revenue Statistics in Africa is jointly undertaken by the OECD Centre for Tax Policy and Administration and the OECD Development Centre, the African Union Commission (AUC) and the African Tax Administration Forum (ATAF) with the financial support of the European Union. It compiles comparable tax revenue and non‑tax revenue statistics for 30 countries in Africa: Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Cameroon, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eswatini, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, South Africa, Togo, Tunisia and Uganda. The model is the OECD Revenue Statistics database which is a fundamental reference, backed by a well‑established methodology. Extending the OECD methodology to African countries enables comparisons about tax levels and tax structures on a consistent basis, both among African economies and with OECD, Latin American, Caribbean, Asian and Pacific economies. SPECIAL FEATURE: Public debt in Africa and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic
  • 13-décembre-2021

    Français

    Examens environnementaux de l'OCDE : Finlande 2021 (version abrégée)

    La Finlande s’est forgé une solide réputation de leader dans le domaine de la politique de l’environnement et du développement durable. Elle s’est engagée à parvenir à la neutralité carbone à l’horizon 2035 et à faire œuvre de pionnier en instaurant la première économie circulaire au monde. La réalisation de ses ambitieux objectifs n’est toutefois pas pleinement sur les rails. Les émissions de gaz à effet de serre ont baissé durant la dernière décennie, mais elles devront diminuer à un rythme bien plus rapide pour que l’objectif soit atteint. La production de déchets et la consommation de matières ont continué d’augmenter, tout comme les déperditions d’éléments nutritifs dans les masses d’eau. La biodiversité subit des pressions imputables à l’agriculture et au vaste secteur forestier du pays. Des mesures ciblées sont nécessaires pour créer des incitations appropriées, stimuler l’investissement et l’innovation et orienter la reprise économique après la crise du COVID-19 vers une transition verte. La Finlande devrait passer de l’élaboration de bonnes stratégies à une mise en œuvre efficace et cohérente. Il s’agit de mettre en place les bonnes politiques, de réunir des ressources suffisantes et de préserver un large consensus dans l’opinion publique. Ceci est le troisième Examen environnemental de la Finlande. La présente version abrégée contient le résumé, de même que l’évaluation et les recommandations officielles du rapport, qui reposent sur les trois chapitres consacrés aux tendances et développements récents, à la gouvernance et à la croissance verte, ainsi que sur le chapitre thématique détaillé portant sur la lutte contre le changement climatique. Le rapport complet est disponible en anglais sur le site web de l’OCDE.
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  • 10-December-2021

    English

    Strengthening climate resilience in mountainous areas

    Mountainous areas are at the forefront of climate change. This working paper presents approaches to strengthening the resilience of human and natural systems in mountainous areas against the impacts of climate change. Chapter 1 provides an overview of climate-related hazards to ecosystems and communities in mountainous areas, especially in developing countries, and their exposure and vulnerability to those hazards. The chapter then examines various ways governments and development co‑operation providers can strengthen the climate resilience of mountain communities and ecosystems. Chapter 2 presents the case of the Indian state of Uttarakhand.
  • 9-December-2021

    English

    Private Philanthropy for Development – Second Edition - Data for Action

    This second edition of Private Philanthropy for Development aims to meet the growing demand for open, reliable and comparable data on philanthropic giving. Compared to the first edition, it collected more data from large foundations and other organisations based in developing countries to have a more comprehensive understanding of cross-border financing and domestic giving. The report analyses philanthropic flows by geography, sector and thematic area, explores how these flows are implemented and compares their scope to official development assistance (ODA). It dives deeper into foundations’ strategies for mobilising additional resources through their assets and philanthropic capital; looks at their engagement in advocacy to amplify and sustain their impact; and studies their approaches to learning and knowledge production through monitoring and evaluation. The report unpacks unprecedented data on philanthropy’s contribution to developing countries, which will be critical for development actors, including governments, ODA providers and foundations, to better co-ordinate their actions, exploit synergies and play to their best comparative advantage en route to a sustainable recovery.
  • 2-December-2021

    English

    Latin American Economic Outlook 2021 - Working Together for a Better Recovery

    The Latin American Economic Outlook 2021: Working Together for a Better Recovery aims to analyse and provide policy recommendations for a strong, inclusive and environmentally sustainable recovery in the region. The report explores policy actions to improve social protection mechanisms and increase social inclusion, foster regional integration and strengthen industrial strategies, and rethink the social contract to restore trust and empower citizens at all stages of the policy‑making process. Moreover, it stresses the need to promote sustainable and adapted macro‑economic frameworks to finance the recovery, as well as the importance of renewing international co‑operation to support these policy actions. Finally, the publication includes three crucial cross‑cutting themes: climate change and the green recovery, the digital transformation, and gender. The LEO is a joint annual publication produced by the OECD Development Centre, the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UN ECLAC), the Development Bank of Latin America (CAF) and the European Union (EU). It is the first pillar of the EU Regional Facility for Development in Transition for Latin America and the Caribbean.
  • 2-December-2021

    English

    SIGI 2021 Regional Report for Africa

    The SIGI 2021 Regional Report for Africa provides regional analysis on how discriminatory social institutions, such as formal and informal laws, social norms and practices, continue to constrain women’s empowerment and restrict their access to opportunities and rights. It gives new evidence on the impact of these discriminatory social institutions on three key dimensions of women’s empowerment across the region: their physical integrity, their economic situation and their political voice, leadership and agency. The report provides regional as well as thematic policy recommendations that aim to transform gender norms, promote women’s empowerment and build a truly inclusive society, especially in the current context of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.
  • 2-December-2021

    English

    Jobs for Rural Youth - The Role of Local Food Economies

    Today, the global youth population is at its highest ever and still growing, with the highest proportion of youth living in Africa and Asia, and a majority of them in rural areas. Young people in rural areas face the double challenge of age-specific vulnerabilities and underdevelopment of rural areas. While agriculture absorbs the majority of rural workers in developing countries, low pay and poor working conditions make it difficult to sustain rural livelihoods. Potential job opportunities for rural youth exist in agriculture and along the agri-food value chain, however. Growing populations, urbanisation and rising incomes of the working class are increasing demand for more diverse and higher value added agricultural and food products in Africa and developing Asia. This demand will create a need for off-farm labour, especially in agribusinesses, which tends to be better paid and located in rural areas and secondary towns. It could boost job creation in the food economy provided that local food systems were mobilised to take up the challenge of higher and changing domestic demand for food.
  • 30-novembre-2021

    Français

    Renforcer l’autonomie et la confiance des jeunes en Tunisie

    En Tunisie, les jeunes de moins de 30 ans constituent 48 % de la population. Ils ont un rôle important dans le développement économique, social et politique du pays, mais font face à des défis importants dans leur transition vers l'autonomie et l’âge adulte. Les conséquences socio-économiques du COVID-19 ont encore exacerbé les défis auxquels ils sont confrontés, et ont mis en avant l’importance de promouvoir leur participation à la prise de décision publique. Cette revue présente une analyse des dispositifs de gouvernance des politiques publiques à destination de la jeunesse en Tunisie, en mettant l'accent sur cinq domaines : 1) un cadre légal et règlementaire adapté aux jeunes, 2) l’adoption d’une approche gouvernementale intégrée dans l’élaboration des politiques publiques de la jeunesse, 3) l’optimisation des capacités institutionnelles du ministère de la Jeunesse, 4) l’inclusion d’une « dimension » jeunesse dans la formulation des politiques publiques, et 5) la promotion de la participation et de la représentation des jeunes dans la vie publique.
  • 25-November-2021

    English

    TOSSD - Tracking global health expenditure in support of the SDGs

    The COVID-19 pandemic has underscored the need for better tracking and monitoring domestic and international investments in health, including on pandemic preparedness. The total official support for sustainable development (TOSSD) framework can help, as it captures both cross‑border flows to developing countries, such as international assistance, and domestic contributions to global public goods, such as pandemic preparedness. This pilot study tests the current TOSSD methodology for tracking the global financing for health, and explores how TOSSD can be shaped to best respond to the emerging information needs of the international community.
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