• 18-June-2024


    OECD increases engagement with Southeast Asia further - Opens accession discussions with Thailand

    The Council of the OECD has decided to open accession discussions with Thailand, making it the second country from Southeast Asia to become an OECD accession candidate this year.

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  • 10-June-2024


    Clean Energy Finance and Investment Roadmap of Thailand

    Thailand has adopted ambitious clean energy targets to meet its long-term climate goals, committing to reach carbon neutrality by 2050 and net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2065. Transforming Thailand’s energy system, alongside broader development objectives, is critical to meeting these goals as the energy sector accounts for 69% of Thailand’s total GHG emissions. The Clean Energy Finance and Investment Roadmap of Thailand ('the Roadmap') outlines key actions to unlock finance and investment in two clean energy sectors: (i) renewable power, with special attention to small-scale renewable power systems; and (ii) energy efficiency in buildings, with a focus on cooling applications. The two sectors were selected in close consultation with the Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency (DEDE) of the Ministry of Energy of Thailand. The Roadmap provides a comprehensive overview of the progress to date, policy context and challenges to mobilise near-term finance in those sectors, as well as estimates of the finance needs to reach Thailand’s clean energy plans. The report also includes a roadmap action plan, suggesting non-prescriptive recommendations and actions that the Government of Thailand, financial institutions, energy service companies, academia and the international development community active in the country could undertake to foster clean energy investments in Thailand.
  • 7-May-2024


    A growth-friendly and inclusive green transition strategy for Thailand

    This paper discusses Thailand’s green growth policy framework with a focus on finding the right policy mix and institutional setup. Given that the economy is in a process of catching up with advanced economies, particular emphasis will need to be placed on making the green transition conducive to economic growth and further improvements in living standards. Implementing Thailand’s current pledge to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050 and net zero emissions by 2065 will require substantial policy changes. While the expansion of natural gas use over the past years has helped Thailand to contain increases of carbon emissions, reversing the still rising emissions calls for a strong shift towards renewable energy sources. Thailand has already started these efforts. The use of biofuels has increased in road transport, and other renewable energy sources have also expanded. Investments into greener production technologies and a more responsible use of resources have received strong attention. However, most current initiatives are voluntary, which will not be sufficient to achieve the country’s climate goals. As Thailand is highly vulnerable to climate change risks, policies that promote adaptation to climate change will also play an important role.
  • 2-May-2024


    Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India - Volume 2024 Issue 1

    The Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India is a regular publication on regional economic growth and development in Emerging Asia – Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam, as well as China and India. It comprises three parts: a regional economic monitor, a thematic chapter addressing a major issue facing the region, and a series of country notes. The 2024 edition discusses the region’s macroeconomic challenges such as external headwinds, impacts of El Niño and elevated levels of private debt. The thematic chapter focuses on strategies to cope with more frequent disasters. Emerging Asia is among the world’s most disaster-prone regions, and the threat of disasters, such as floods, storms, earthquakes and droughts, is increasing. The report explores how countries can reduce disaster risks and improve resilience by developing a comprehensive approach involving policy measures such as improving governance and institutional capacity, ensuring adequate budgets and broadening financing options, strengthening disaster-related education, improving land planning, investing in disaster-resilient infrastructure and disaster-related technology, improving health responses, and facilitating the role of the private sector.
  • 22-March-2024


    Nature-based solutions for flood management in Asia and the Pacific

    Countries in Asia and the Pacific face a heightened risk of flooding as disasters increase worldwide due to climate change. Yet these countries often lack the infrastructure necessary to prepare for and respond to floods effectively. When flood protection measures exist, they generally rely only on grey, hard-engineered infrastructure, which has been increasingly challenged in recent years. Nature-based solutions (NbS) offer a new approach for flood management, with several co-benefits beyond the reduction of risks. This approach has gained recognition from policy makers in the region, but they are confronted with a number of challenges, including the lack of a clear, common definition and guidelines, as well as financing issues. The growing imperatives of climate adaptation call for complementary, innovative and forward-looking solutions, such as a combined approach incorporating both NbS and grey infrastructure.
  • 18-March-2024


    SIGI 2024 Regional Report for Southeast Asia - Time to Care

    What are the structural barriers to women's empowerment and inclusive development in Southeast Asia? Building on data from the fifth edition of the SIGI, the SIGI 2024 Regional Report for Southeast Asia: Time to Care provides new evidence-based analysis on the progress and setbacks in eliminating the root causes of gender inequality in 11 countries of the region. It underscores how multiple personal status laws perpetuate gender-based legal discrimination. The analysis also shows that social norms governing gender roles and responsibilities worsened between 2014 and 2022, particularly affecting women’s educational and economic rights. The report explores a critical policy area for the region, the care economy. Stressing the gendered, informal, and unpaid dimensions of care, it draws on social, demographic, educational and economic evidence to forecast a growing demand for care services in Southeast Asian countries. The report advocates for the strategic development of formal care systems as a unique opportunity to accelerate women's economic empowerment, build inclusive societies and strengthen the region's resilience to external shocks – including those induced by climate change. To dismantle the barriers that prevent the emergence and expansion of such a formal care economy, it provides concrete recommendations to policy makers and other stakeholders.
  • 11-March-2024


    Towards Greener and More Inclusive Societies in Southeast Asia

    Over 100 million workers in Southeast Asia have jobs that are directly or closely linked to the environment, making them vulnerable to climate change impacts. These same workers likely earn at least 20% lower than the national average and are largely in informal employment. The region’s necessary transition towards greener growth could affect them in several ways: some sectors will create jobs and others will lose jobs or disappear altogether. Understanding the effects of both climate change and green growth policies on jobs and people is thus essential for making the transition in Southeast Asia an inclusive one. The study explores these issues, with emphasis on the potential effects on labour of an energy transition in Indonesia, and of a transition in the region’s agricultural sector, illustrated by a simulated conversion from conventional to organic rice farming.
  • 30-January-2024


    Asia-Pacific Competition Update: OECD/Korea Policy Centre newsletter

    This newsletter contains information about work on competition law and policy in the Asia-Pacific region that is taking place within the framework of the OECD-Korea Policy Centre Competition Programme.

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  • 15-December-2023


    Extending Broadband Connectivity in Southeast Asia

    This report assesses the current state of connectivity in Southeast Asia and provides tailored recommendations for extending broadband access, focusing on five countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. The analysis builds upon the OECD Recommendation on Broadband Connectivity, which provides a reference for policy makers and regulatory authorities within and outside of the OECD. Using the principles of the Recommendation as a roadmap, countries may be better able to unleash the full potential of connectivity for the digital transformation and to ensure equal access to connectivity for all users.
  • 7-December-2023


    OECD Economic Surveys: Thailand 2023

    Thailand has achieved remarkable economic progress over the past decades. A strong and timely policy response helped to cushion the economic and social impact of the pandemic, and of high energy and food prices. While bold fiscal support prevented the economy from falling into a recession, public debt has risen and fiscal consolidation should now continue at a gradual pace. Rising social demands, population ageing and the green transition will likely add to public spending pressures and call for raising additional tax revenues. Boosting productivity and mastering the transition towards more sustainable and inclusive growth will require stepping up delayed structural reforms. Competition remains limited across several sectors, likely related to market entry barriers and high regulatory burdens. More than half of workers lack formal employment and social security does not cover most of them. Social pensions provide a minimum income floor for elderly people, and raising them could allow significant inroads in the fight against poverty and inequality. Meeting climate pledges will require bold and well-organised reforms. Renewable power generation has advanced, but the overall share of renewable energy sources remains lower than in peer countries. SPECIAL FEATURES: BOOSTING PRODUCTIVITY; INCLUSIVE RECOVERY; GREEN GROWTH
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