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Publications & Documents


  • 4-December-2023

    English

    Multi-level governance and subnational finance in Asia and the Pacific

    Subnational governments in Asia and the Pacific are key providers of the public services and infrastructure required to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. Given this role, it is essential that policymakers and development partners understand and support the effective functioning of multi-level governance structures and subnational government finances across the region. This joint OECD-ADB report provides a comprehensive overview of subnational governments across Asia and the Pacific. It covers over 467,000 subnational governments from 26 countries, which represent 53% of the world’s population and 40% of global GDP. On average in 2020, subnational governments in the region accounted for 29% of total public expenditure (8.8% of GDP), 35% of total public revenue (8.5% of GDP) and 38% of public investment (2% of GDP). Harnessing unique data from the 3rd edition of the OECD-UCLG World Observatory on Subnational Government Finance and Investment, the analysis highlights how decentralisation and territorial reforms have reconfigured the structures and finances of subnational governments in the region. It covers a range of topics including fiscal rules, financial management capacity, priority-based budgeting, asset management and the use of public-private partnerships.
  • 3-September-2023

    English

    Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India - Volume 2023 Issue 1

    The Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India is a regular publication on regional economic growth and development in Emerging Asia. It focuses on the economic conditions of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. It also addresses relevant economic issues in China and India to fully reflect developments in the region. This Update presents the region’s economic outlook, depicting rapidly changing trends and macroeconomic challenges amidst external headwinds.
  • 26-April-2023

    English

    Aid at a glance charts

    These ready-made tables and charts provide for snapshot of aid (Official Development Assistance) for all DAC Members as well as recipient countries and territories. Summary reports by regions (Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania) and the world are also available.

    Related Documents
  • 16-March-2023

    English

    Schools as hubs for social and emotional learning - Are schools and teachers ready?

    Schools are perfect hubs for social and emotional learning, but are they ready for this task? To address this question, this Spotlight reports previously unpublished findings from the OECD’s Survey on Social and Emotional Skills (SSES) and discusses their implications for education policy and practice. Both an active promotion in schools and extensive learning opportunities for teachers on relevant topics provide a fertile ground for an effective social and emotional education. They boost teachers’ self-efficacy and use of active learning pedagogies, as well as quality relationships at school. The Spotlight also points to important differences for teachers of 10- vs. 15-year-old students that can explain higher skills at a younger age. Younger students benefit more often from key elements of an effective social and emotional education in school, i.e. the evaluation of their social and emotional skills and teachers teaming up with parents to reinforce skill promotion. Teachers of 10-year-olds are also more intensively trained and requested to promote social and emotional learning in their work.
  • 17-November-2022

    English

    Opportunities for Hydrogen Production with CCUS in China

    Hydrogen and carbon capture, utilisation, and storage (CCUS) are set to play important and complementary roles in meeting People’s Republic of China’s (hereafter, 'China') pledge to peak carbon dioxide emissions before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality before 2060. Hydrogen could contribute to China’s energy system decarbonisation strategy, such as through the use as a fuel and feedstock in industrial processes; in fuel cell electric transport, and for the production of synthetic hydrocarbon fuels for shipping and aviation. The analysis of scenarios in this report suggests that while hydrogen from renewable power electrolysis could meet the majority of hydrogen demand by 2060, equipping existing hydrogen production facilities with CCUS could be a complementary strategy to reduce emissions and scale-up low-emission hydrogen supply. This report was produced in collaboration with the Administrative Centre for China’s Agenda 21 (ACCA21). It explores today’s hydrogen and CCUS status in China, and the potential evolution of hydrogen demand in various sectors of the Chinese economy through 2060, in light of scenarios developed independently by the IEA and the China Hydrogen Alliance. The report also provides a comparative assessment of the economic performance and life cycle emissions of different hydrogen production routes. Finally, the report discusses potential synergies and regional opportunities in deploying CCUS and hydrogen, and identifies financing mechanisms and supporting policies required to enable the deployment of hydrogen production with CCUS in China.
  • 29-July-2022

    English

    The economic benefits of international co-operation to improve air quality in Northeast Asia - A focus on Japan, Korea and China

    Air pollution is a global challenge to people’s health and has severe economic consequences. The region of Northeast Asia is no exception. Across most regions in Japan, and in the entire territories of Korea and China, annual average concentrations of fine particulate matter are above the guideline levels indicated by the World Health Organisation, indicating a risk to health. Policy action to tackle air pollution across the three countries, could prevent air pollution related illnesses and deaths, without affecting economic growth. This report presents projections for the impact of air pollution polices until 2050, with differing levels of regional coordination. Projections for current policies are compared with unilateral policy action, whereby each of the three countries introduce more stringent policies to tackle air pollution; alongside regionally coordinated policy action by all three countries; and policy action on a global level. The report presents the health, agricultural and economic impacts, and identifies considerable benefits from further coordination on air pollution policies, such as with regional and global policy action.
  • 21-July-2022

    English

    Production Transformation Policy Review of Shenzhen, China - A Journey of Continuous Learning

    Shenzhen is a stellar case of growth and economic transformation. Since its establishment as one of China’s first four Special Economic Zones in 1980, it has evolved at breakneck speed. Shenzhen transformed from a fishing village to a major world trade hub and is now home to global innovators in electronics. The Production Transformation Policy Review (PTPR) of Shenzhen, China reviews the city’s changing policy approaches, focusing on the shift from an assembly to a manufacturing centre and more recently to an innovation and start-up hub. Through a comprehensive assessment of Shenzhen’s experience, this review offers insights into the range of policies and strategies employed to stimulate industrial upgrading and learning in China. It provides lessons and actionable policy recommendations for the growth of cities and emerging economies in their catching-up journey. The PTPR of Shenzhen, China has been carried out in the framework of the OECD Initiative for Policy Dialogue on Global Value Chains, Production Transformation and Development and has benefitted from government-business dialogues and international peer learning (University of Seoul, Korea; University of Georgetown, USA and Digital India Foundation, India).
  • 19-May-2022

    English

    Reaping efficiency gains through product market reforms in China

    The impressive emergence of China’s economy is set to lose some momentum as the country catches up with more advanced economies and its rapid ageing also weighs on it. However, China can still reap the 'reform dividend', especially with measures to keep up the sustained growth of productivity. Reforms that enhance competition in product markets are among those that can potentially bring about significant productivity gains. China has been lowering the burden on start-ups and simplifying administrative procedures for a while already, achieving significant progress, though more procedures could go online and a one-stop shop is still to be implemented across the country. State ownership remains dominant in most network industries and there are many SOEs even in commercially-oriented industries such as retail or catering. SOEs enjoy implicit government guarantees and are the main beneficiaries of administrative monopolies, i.e. exclusive rights granted by regulations. In addition, they also benefit from various subsidies, sometimes leading to low-level, repetitious investment, excess capacity and waste of public money. A more level playing field would bring about efficiency-enhancing competition by private and foreign firms. Some network industries such as electricity and gas have recently accelerated their opening up and competition is developing in some segments. Digitalisation is a promising candidate to lift China’s long-term growth potential. Competition, in particular competitive pressure from foreign counterparts when there are few domestic players could be an important source of efficiency gains in digital services. China has been a frontrunner in business digitalisation for a while already, but the outbreak accelerated also the provision of e-government services. While strengthening of IPR protection and promoting innovative ways of financing are welcome steps to nurture innovative industries, generous tax exemptions – which by OECD standards do not constitute good tax policy - reduce the availability of public funds for other priority areas.
  • 18-April-2022

    English

    Tracking Clean Energy Innovation - Focus on China

    In the last 20 years, the People’s Republic of China (hereafter, 'China') has strengthened its position on the global stage as an energy innovator, as illustrated by the stories of solar power and, more recently, electric mobility. This is the result of several decades of increasing policy focus on technology innovation, which underpin China’s ambitions to become a producer of knowledge and foster innovation-driven socio-economic development. Looking forward, clean energy innovation will play a crucial role to achieve China’s objectives of carbon peaking by 2030 and neutrality by 2060, and ranks among core government priorities for the 14th Five-Year Plan period (2021-2025). This report builds on the IEA Energy Sector Roadmap to Carbon Neutrality in China chapter on 'Innovation for carbon neutrality', and provides complementary and new analysis and information. It maps the institutional and policy landscape of clean energy innovation in China and shows trends for selected metrics to track and explain progress of technology development.
  • 13-January-2022

    English

    The role of China’s feed deficit in international grain markets

    International grain prices experienced a sharp increase during the 2020/2021 marketing season, most likely due to the unprecedented increase of imported grains by China. What would be the possible impact on international grain markets if China remains a strong grain importer? The scenario developed to explore the impact of such a development shows that further increases in Chinese grain imports over the medium term could result in a 4% to 25% increase in agriculture commodity prices compared to what was projected in the OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2021-2030.
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