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Economy


  • 19-May-2022

    English

    Reaping efficiency gains through product market reforms in China

    The impressive emergence of China’s economy is set to lose some momentum as the country catches up with more advanced economies and its rapid ageing also weighs on it. However, China can still reap the 'reform dividend', especially with measures to keep up the sustained growth of productivity. Reforms that enhance competition in product markets are among those that can potentially bring about significant productivity gains. China has been lowering the burden on start-ups and simplifying administrative procedures for a while already, achieving significant progress, though more procedures could go online and a one-stop shop is still to be implemented across the country. State ownership remains dominant in most network industries and there are many SOEs even in commercially-oriented industries such as retail or catering. SOEs enjoy implicit government guarantees and are the main beneficiaries of administrative monopolies, i.e. exclusive rights granted by regulations. In addition, they also benefit from various subsidies, sometimes leading to low-level, repetitious investment, excess capacity and waste of public money. A more level playing field would bring about efficiency-enhancing competition by private and foreign firms. Some network industries such as electricity and gas have recently accelerated their opening up and competition is developing in some segments. Digitalisation is a promising candidate to lift China’s long-term growth potential. Competition, in particular competitive pressure from foreign counterparts when there are few domestic players could be an important source of efficiency gains in digital services. China has been a frontrunner in business digitalisation for a while already, but the outbreak accelerated also the provision of e-government services. While strengthening of IPR protection and promoting innovative ways of financing are welcome steps to nurture innovative industries, generous tax exemptions – which by OECD standards do not constitute good tax policy - reduce the availability of public funds for other priority areas.
  • 22-March-2022

    English

    Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India - Volume 2022 Issue 1

    The Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India is a regular publication on regional economic growth and development in Emerging Asia. It focuses on the economic conditions of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) members: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam, as well as China and India. It comprises two main parts. The first part presents the regional economic monitor, depicting the economic outlook and macroeconomic challenges in the region. The second part consists of special thematic chapters addressing a major issue facing the region. The 2022 edition addresses financing sustainable recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic is proving to be extremely costly, both economically and socially and sustainable financing solutions are crucial for an equitable and inclusive recovery. The report explores how governments can obtain additional financing by harnessing bond markets, and use green, social and sustainability bonds to achieve policy objectives.
  • 5-October-2021

    English

    China’s outward direct investment and its impact on the domestic economy

    Overseas direct investment by Chinese firms increased eight fold over the past decade, making the country as an important investor in stock terms as Japan. Investing in leasing and business services appears to make up nearly half of China’s ODI stock according to official sources, though it is over-estimated owing to the fact that all investment through third parties and vehicles appears under this sector, not under the one where the investment is actually made. Correcting for this caveat by using firm-level M&A and greenfield investment data indicates that in fact China’s ODI mostly goes to resource-based manufacturing. Also, China is just as an important manufacturing investor as is Japan. Estimation results show that overseas direct investment affects domestic employment negatively in the majority of sectors, indicating substitution instead of a complementary relationship. Furthermore, ODI reduces the speed of labour market adjustment to its long-run equilibrium and increases the domestic price elasticity of demand for labour. There is considerable heterogeneity across sectors, but the impact of ODI on domestic fixed asset investment tends to be negative in most sectors.
  • 29-June-2021

    English

    Strengthening Macroprudential Policies in Emerging Asia - Adapting to Green Goals and Fintech

    Many Emerging Asian countries have been refining macroprudential policies, particularly since the Global Financial Crisis. For instance, they have developed policies targeting housing markets and broadly transposed the Basel III requirements into their national legislation. In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, policy makers now need to identify emerging vulnerabilities and their associated financial stability risks and respond with the appropriate macroprudential tools. This publication provides a detailed overview of the current macroprudential policy situation in Emerging Asian countries and explores how the macroprudential policy toolkit has evolved. The report discusses some of the most pressing challenges to financial stability, including the interaction of macroprudential policy with other policies. It also devotes special attention to macroprudential policies for emerging priorities, such as achieving green goals and updating regulatory frameworks to reflect ongoing Fintech developments. Climate change will indeed create new challenges in financial markets, while Fintech developments bring about many economic opportunities and deepen financial systems, but present a variety of novel risks requiring rapid policy responses.
  • 17-November-2020

    English

    The impact of COVID-19 on SME financing - A special edition of the OECD Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs Scoreboard

    The COVID-19 crisis has had a profound impact on SME access to finance. In particular, the sudden drop in revenues created acute liquidity shortages, threatening the survival of many viable businesses. The report documents an increase in demand for bank lending in the first half of 2020, and a steady supply of credit thanks to government interventions. On the other hand, other sources of finance declined, in particular early-stage equity. This paper, a special edition of Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs, focuses on the impacts of COVID-19 on SME access to finance, along with government policy responses. It reveals that the pre-crisis financing environment was broadly favourable for SMEs and entrepreneurs, who benefited from low interest rates, loose credit standards and an increasingly diverse offer of financing instruments. It documents the unprecedented scope and scale of the policy responses undertaken by governments world-wide, and details their key characteristics, and outlines the principal issues and policy challenges for the next phases of the pandemic, such as the over-indebtedness of SMEs and the need to continue to foster a diverse range of financing instruments for SMEs.
  • 14-April-2020

    English

    Synthesising good practices in fiscal federalism - Key recommendations from 15 years of country surveys

    The design of intergovernmental fiscal relations can help to ensure that tax and spending powers are assigned in a way to promote sustainable and inclusive economic growth. Decentralisation can enable sub-central governments to provide better public services for households and firms, while it can also make intergovernmental frameworks more complex, harming equity. The challenges of fiscal federalism are multi-faceted and involve difficult trade-offs. This synthesis paper consolidates much of the OECD’s work on fiscal federalism over the past 15 years, with a particular focus on OECD Economic Surveys. The paper identifies a range of good practices on the design of country policies and institutions related strengthening fiscal capacity delineating responsibilities across evels of government and improving intergovernmental co-ordination.
  • 21-November-2019

    English

    Fourth 1+6 Roundtable Meeting

    Thank you for your invitation to the fourth 1 + 6 Roundtable Meeting. Next year marks the 25th anniversary of OECD-China co-operation, and five years since your historic visit to our Headquarters in Paris, where we signed our first Joint Work Programme (JWP).

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  • 10-July-2019

    English

    Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India 2019 – Update - Responding to Environmental Hazards in Cities

    The Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India is a bi-annual publication on regional economic growth, development and regional integration in Emerging Asia. It focuses on the economic conditions of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. It also addresses relevant economic issues in China and India to fully reflect economic developments in the region.The update of the Outlook comprises three main parts, each highlighting a particular dimension of recent economic developments in the region. The first part presents the regional economic monitor, depicting the economic outlook and macroeconomic challenges in the region. The second and third parts consist of special thematic chapters addressing a major issue facing the region. This update focuses on smart cities, discussing in particular smart city strategies and urban environmental risks.
  • 16-April-2019

    English

    China needs further reforms to make growth sustainable, greener and more inclusive

    The Chinese economy continues to slow as it rebalances, with headwinds including trade frictions and the weakening global economy undermining exports and creating new uncertainties.

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  • 6-November-2018

    English

    OECD and China: strengthening multilateralism, partnering on international standards

    Inequalities of income, wealth and opportunity continue to divide our societies and fuel political uncertainty and turbulence. In the OECD, the income gap between the top and the bottom deciles is now almost 10 times, up from 7 times in the 1980s. We have to reverse these trends with growth that is more inclusive, which empowers people and places that have been left behind.

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