Regional, rural and urban development

Compendium Subnational Revenue


What's the issue?

Supporting subnational government climate action requires having a better understanding of the way they are funded, from both public and private sources. Public sources of revenue include grants, subsidies, user charges and fees, and tax revenues, and external sources include loans, loan guarantees, and bonds, among others. The combination of these revenue sources available to subnational governments influences their room for manoeuvre in implementing their climate plans.

The Compendium of Financial Instruments that Support Subnational Climate Action in OECD and EU Countries provides an overview and analysis of some climate-related public revenue sources provided to subnational governments from national governments, and state governments in federal countries. It includes grants, climate funds, loans, as well as information on contractual arrangements as an innovative way to link funding to climate action.

On this page, you will find our latest research on the topic, our Compendium, and links to other key resources on the topic.  

 Our Compendium– (best viewed in full-screen)


The Compendium of Financial Instruments that Support Subnational Climate Action in OECD and EU Countries: 

(data last updated in March 2022)  


►    The level of government providing the support: European Union level (for European countries), national government, state/regional governments or intermediate government, in countries where they exist.  

►    The type of instruments available: earmarked or non-earmarked grants, loans, guarantees, contractual agreements, with or without co-financing components.   

►    The sectors targeted, based on the Climate Bonds Initiative taxonomy: water, energy, transport, buildings, land use and marine resources, industry, waste, ICT, and air quality. 

►    Whether the instrument supports climate change mitigation, adaptation, or both.  

►   Under which conditions the financing be accessed: guidelines for application, eligibility requirements, and a description of the instrument. 

Click here to view the analysis of the Compendium.

Notice that a funding instrument is missing from the Compendium? Notice an error with an existing instrument? Have input to share? We invite you to send any inputs and comments to


Key Resources

FOR SNG Climate Finance Hub PINE database portal


Taxes, subsidies, and other economic instruments provide important market signals that can influence the behaviour of producers and consumers. Policy INstruments for the Environment is a unique database, developed by the OECD, gathering key quantitative and qualitative information on six types of policy instruments, in more than 120 countries – OECD members and many others. 



SNG Climate Finance Hub, Compendium subpage event image for EU toolbox Financing the Green Deal: a toolbox for the implementation of the Green Deal developed by the European Committee of the regions


In 2019, the European Commission introduced the European Green Deal as the ‘new growth strategy’ for Europe. Therefore, this report, prepared by the European Committee of the Regions, examines the possibilities for the EU budget to support the implementation of the Green Deal at the local and regional level. The report introduces the role of the EU budget in financing the Green Deal, looks into the different EU financing opportunities and pathways for accessing EU funds available to LRAs, and explores possibilities to improve the access of LRAs to EU financing.


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