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  • 14-December-2022

    English

    Toolkit for raising awareness and preventing corruption in SMEs

    This paper evaluates foreign bribery and corruption risks for small and medium enterprises (SMEs), and offers an awareness-raising toolkit on the importance of adopting anti-corruption measures. Based on data collected through research, interviews with SMEs, business organisations and legal professionals in countries Party to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention and others, the toolkit presents initiatives that will enable governments, business organisations and large companies to better support SMEs in preventing and fighting foreign bribery and corruption.
  • 14-December-2022

    English

    Anti-corruption compliance in times of crisis - Building resilience and seizing opportunities

    This paper assesses the impact of crises, in particular the COVID-19 pandemic and ensuing economic crisis, on anti-corruption compliance objectives, resources and operations. It evaluates whether the crisis generated challenges or opportunities for businesses in the area of anti-corruption compliance, and whether it led to long-term, structural changes. The paper offers recommendations for companies to improve their responses to corruption risks during times of crisis, and for governments to better support companies in this context.
  • 14-December-2022

    English

    Lessons from the crypto winter - DeFi versus CeFi

    This paper analyses the mechanisms involved in the recent failings in crypto-asset markets, focusing on events in 2022 through September. The paper assesses the role of centralised finance (CeFi) and decentralised finance (DeFi), and the disproportionate impact the crypto market turmoil has had on retail market participants. It examines learnings of the recent crypto-asset market downturn, also know as the 'crypto winter', including high interconnectedness within the crypto-asset ecosystem; elaborate mechanisms of financial engineering that heavily use leverage and are built on the composability offered by DeFi (i.e., components of DeFi are pieced together to create new products); and increased market concentration. The paper also highlights the urgency for policy action and provides policy recommendations.
  • 13-December-2022

    English

    Multi-dimensional Review of the Dominican Republic - Towards Greater Well-being for All

    The Dominican Republic has made strides on many socioeconomic fronts over the years. The country has been one of the leading economies in Latin America and the Caribbean in terms of GDP growth, reaching upper middle-income status in 2011. However, progress on the different dimensions of well-being has been insufficient. In particular, socioeconomic and territorial disparities are still important, and public institutions remain insufficiently solid. For the Dominican Republic to embark on a more prosperous development path, three critical dimensions must be tackled. First, providing quality jobs for all, with particular emphasis on boosting formalisation and productive transformation. Second, mobilising more public and private finance for development, with more progressive and effective taxation systems, more efficient public expenditure and deeper capital markets. Third, accelerating digital transformation to boost productivity, enhance inclusion and support job creation.
  • 12-December-2022

    English, PDF, 679kb

    G20/OECD High-Level Principles on Financial Consumer Protection [Summary flyer]

    G20/OECD High-Level Principles on Financial Consumer Protection

    Related Documents
  • 9-December-2022

    English

    Catalysing collective action to combat corruption in infrastructure - Accountable and effective non-judicial grievance mechanism

    Infrastructure is vital for supporting economic growth, enhancing prosperity and well-being. G7 nations and other partnerships have committed to quality and sustainable infrastructure investments based on high standards and shared values to mobilise public and private investment. Unfortunately, infrastructure remains highly exposed to corruption and other irregular practices, and lacks sufficient accountability. New and innovative approaches to tackle corruption are needed to address these challenges. This policy paper focuses on collective action and multi-stakeholder non-judicial grievance mechanisms to support early detection, prevention and reporting of corruption. It highlights three mechanisms, namely, the National Contact Point for Responsible Business Conduct, the High Level Reporting Mechanism, and the Integrity Pact, which are well-suited to addressing corruption risks across the infrastructure lifecycle. As countries increase infrastructure investment and look to attract private financing, there is an opportunity to harness multi-stakeholder solutions that address corruption, de-risk projects and ensure finance meets its intended purpose.
  • 6-December-2022

    English

    Financing SMEs for sustainability - Drivers, Constraints and Policies

    Addressing the climate crisis requires the net zero transition of millions of SMEs globally. SMEs have a significant aggregate environmental footprint and need to adopt cleaner business models. As eco-entrepreneurs and eco-innovators, they also have a key role to play in devising innovative climate solutions. Access to finance is essential for SME investments in net zero, but small businesses face considerable challenges in tapping into the growing pool of sustainable finance. This challenge is likely to grow as financial institutions seek to comply with mandatory environmental reporting requirements. This policy paper examines the sustainable finance landscape for SMEs, the various actors in the ecosystem and the key drivers and barriers affecting the supply of and demand for sustainable finance. It provides an overview of the key policies and instruments in place to support SME access to sustainable finance and identifies considerations for future public support and policy making.
  • 5-December-2022

    English

    Biodiversity and development finance - Main trends, 2011-20

    This paper provides an overview of the main trends in development finance with biodiversity-related objectives for the period 2011 to 2020, using available OECD statistical data, from various sources. The resources covered are: Official Development Assistance and non-concessional development finance, both bilateral and multilateral, from members of the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) as well as non-members, including South-South and Triangular Co-operation; private finance mobilised by public interventions; and private philanthropy. In addition, this paper assesses financing provided by bilateral DAC members that are Parties to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity, looking at how they fared collectively against the Aichi Target 20 on development finance. The paper was prepared by the DAC ENVIRONET Secretariat, with inputs from the OECD Environment Directorate, and with guidance from a group of DAC members.
  • 2-December-2022

    English

    Environmental impact of digital assets - Crypto-asset mining and distributed ledger technology consensus mechanisms

    Crypto-asset markets are rapidly developing and reached USD 3tn in late 2021, yet the infrastructure supporting mainstream crypto-assets, such as the Bitcoin, use an enormous amount of energy. This paper explores the growing environmental impact of crypto-assets due to increasing institutional and retail investors participation in these markets. The use of energy-intensive transaction validation through Proof-of-Work consensus mechanisms and the corresponding carbon footprint create climate transition risks for market participants. Policy considerations and action are necessary given the carbon footprint and associated climate transition risks of certain digital assets when combined with negative externalities extending to the wider society.
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