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  • 11-April-2023

    English

    Comparing access to urban parks across six OECD countries

    This work leverages globally consistent data on parks from Google Maps, in combination with the computational power of Google Maps Directions API to quantify accessibility to parks across nearly 500 metropolitan areas in six countries: Estonia, France, Greece, Mexico, Sweden, and the United States. We combined high resolution population data from Worldpop with parks data and navigation estimates to measure: (1) Fraction of the population with access to parks within a 10-minute walk; and (2) the median walking time to the closest park. We find large differences in access to parks between countries, as well as large variability across cities and their respective commuting zones. To demonstrate how this framework can support cross country comparisons and efforts to track progress towards SDG11, we assessed access to parks by income group in selected countries, finding that the median walking time to a park is shorter for residents of low income neighbourhoods both in French and American metropolitan areas.
  • 30-March-2023

    English

    Not lost in translation - The implications of machine translation technologies for language professionals and for broader society

    The paper discusses the implications of recent advances in artificial intelligence for knowledge workers, focusing on possible complementarities and substitution between machine translation tools and language professionals. The emergence of machine translation tools could enhance social welfare through enhanced opportunities for inter-language communication but also create new threats because of persisting low levels of accuracy and quality in the translation output. The paper uses data on online job vacancies to map the evolution of the demand for language professionals between 2015 and 2019 in 10 countries and illustrates the set of skills that are considered important by employers seeking to hire language professionals through job vacancies posted on line.
  • 27-March-2023

    English

    The impact of AI on the workplace: Main findings from the OECD AI surveys of employers and workers

    New OECD surveys of employers and workers in the manufacturing and finance sectors of seven countries shed new light on the impact that Artificial Intelligence has on the workplace —an under-researched area to date due to lack of data. The findings suggest that both workers and their employers are generally very positive about the impact of AI on performance and working conditions. However, there are also concerns, including about job loss—an issue that should be closely monitored. The surveys also indicate that, while many workers trust their employers when it comes to the implementation of AI in the workplace, more can be done to improve trust. In particular, the surveys show that both training and worker consultation are associated with better outcomes for workers.
  • 21-March-2023

    English

    Building a Skilled Cyber Security Workforce in Five Countries - Insights from Australia, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and United States

    As societies become increasingly digital, cyber security has become a priority for individuals, companies and nations. The number of cyber attacks is exceeding defence capabilities, and one reason for this is the lack of an adequately skilled cyber security workforce. This report analyses the demand for cyber security professionals in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States using information contained in online job postings. The analysis looks at recent trends in the demand for workers in different types of cyber security roles, the geographical distribution of cyber security job postings, and the changing skill requirements for professionals in this field. The report also looks at the supply side, zooming in on the landscape of cyber security education and training programmes in England (United Kingdom). It describes the different types of programmes provided in further and higher education, the profile of learners in these programmes and their outcomes. Finally, the report also looks at policies and initiatives adopted in England to make cyber security education and training programmes more accessible and relevant. This report is part of a larger initiative examining the evolution of policies and experiences in the cyber security profession around the world.
  • 16-March-2023

    English

    Schools as hubs for social and emotional learning - Are schools and teachers ready?

    Schools are perfect hubs for social and emotional learning, but are they ready for this task? To address this question, this Spotlight reports previously unpublished findings from the OECD’s Survey on Social and Emotional Skills (SSES) and discusses their implications for education policy and practice. Both an active promotion in schools and extensive learning opportunities for teachers on relevant topics provide a fertile ground for an effective social and emotional education. They boost teachers’ self-efficacy and use of active learning pedagogies, as well as quality relationships at school. The Spotlight also points to important differences for teachers of 10- vs. 15-year-old students that can explain higher skills at a younger age. Younger students benefit more often from key elements of an effective social and emotional education in school, i.e. the evaluation of their social and emotional skills and teachers teaming up with parents to reinforce skill promotion. Teachers of 10-year-olds are also more intensively trained and requested to promote social and emotional learning in their work.
  • 28-February-2023

    English

    Selected policy challenges for the American middle class

    The American middle class has shrunk in size since 1970 according to most definitions. This 'hollowing' out of the United States income distribution could result in disillusionment, diminished political engagement, and declining trust in institutions. The American middle class faces two major challenges, among others. First, child care costs in the United States are high and availability is low. Improving enrolment in child care has the potential to reverse the fall in female labour market participation since the financial crisis and result in improved well-being and economic growth. Public funding for child care programmes should be raised, and programme eligibility should be widened to benefit middle-income parents. Second, the climate transition will entail major changes to middle-class lifestyles. Reductions in US household emissions from housing and transportation will be key to achieving the overall emission reduction targets, and may prove costly. Workers in carbon-intensive sectors of the economy and households living in regions that rely on carbon-intensive activities will be affected as resources shift to greener sectors. A national climate strategy should be developed that explicitly takes into account emissions inequalities and the redistributive effects of climate policies. Active labour market policies will be key to achieving a just transition, and existing home weatherisation programmes should be expanded to cover the middle-class.
  • 23-February-2023

    English

    Six questions about the demand for artificial intelligence skills in labour markets

    This study responds to six key questions about the impact that the demand for Artificial Intelligence (AI) skills is having on labour markets. What are the occupations where AI skills are most relevant? How do different AI-relevant skills combine in job requirements? How quickly is the demand for AI-related skills diffusing across labour markets and what is the relationship between AI skill demands and the demand for cognitive skills across jobs? Finally, are AI skills leading to a wage premium and how different are the wage returns associated with AI and routine skills? To shed light on these aspects, this study leverages Natural Language Processing (NLP) algorithms to analyse the information contained in millions of job postings collected from the internet.
  • 30-November-2022

    English

    Revenue Statistics: Key findings for the United States

    The OECD’s annual Revenue Statistics report found that the tax-to-GDP ratio in the United States increased by 0.8 percentage points from 25.8% in 2020 to 26.6% in 2021. Between 2020 and 2021, the OECD average increased from 33.6% to 34.1%.

  • 15-November-2022

    English

    Swimming skills around the world - Evidence on inequalities in life skills across and within countries

    Being able to swim empowers individuals to make choices, have agency, and be free to choose core aspects of their life, such as working safely on or near water. It is also associated with lifelong health benefits and reduces the risk of drowning. Using data from the Lloyd’s Register Foundation World Risk Poll 2019, this paper provides the first global estimates of adults’ ability to swim without assistance. Individuals in high-income countries are considerably more likely to report being able to swim without assistance than individuals in low-income countries. Disparities also exist within countries. In particular, women are less likely to be able to swim without assistance than men in virtually all countries, birth cohorts, and levels of education. Investing in reducing inequalities in life skills, such as swimming, can foster economic development and empowerment, especially in light of threats, such as climate change.
  • 11-novembre-2022

    Français

    Examens de l'OCDE sur la coopération pour le développement : États-Unis 2022

    Le Comité d’aide au développement (CAD) de l’OCDE mène tous les cinq à six ans un examen par les pairs qui passe en revue les efforts de coopération pour le développement de chacun de ses membres. Ces examens visent à améliorer la qualité et l’efficacité de leur coopération pour le développement, en mettant en évidence les bonnes pratiques et en recommandant des améliorations. Les États-Unis ont endossé un rôle de chef de file en apportant des contributions d’APD substantielles en réaction aux crises multiples. L’aide extérieure est programmée et acheminée par 21 organismes publics américains. USAID intègre systématiquement la collaboration, l’apprentissage et l’adaptation dans les cycles de ses programmes, et elle s’attache à améliorer la diversité, l’équité et l’inclusion en se faisant le champion des approches pilotées à l’échelon local. Cet examen par les pairs formule, à l’intention des États-Unis, un ensemble de recommandations visant à atténuer les répercussions négatives transnationales de leurs politiques publiques, à encourager des dotations budgétaires plus flexibles concordant avec les besoins, à adopter une approche plus claire vis-à-vis des partenariats multilatéraux, et à doter leur institution de financement du développement des moyens qui lui permettront de mener à bien sa mission. Il recommande aux États-Unis de placer l’efficacité du développement au cœur de l’adaptation au contexte local, de renforcer les ressources humaines, et de prendre en compte la prévention des conflits dans l’ensemble des programmes par pays.
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