• 16-May-2024


    Assessing the enabling conditions for investment in water security - Scorecard pilot test in Asian countries

    This report outlines results from the initial pilot-testing of a Scorecard to assess the enabling environment for investment in water security, referred to as 'the Scorecard'. Developed in collaboration with the Asian Development Bank and partners, the Scorecard aims to identify conditions for attracting and maintaining investment in water security. The report outlines the Scorecard's rationale, scoring methodology, and presents its main components. It also provides results from seven Asian countries, namely, Bangladesh, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Uzbekistan, and Sri Lanka. Armenia's findings from a subsequent Eastern European pilot test are also incorporated. This is the first in a sub-set of working papers within the Environment Working Paper series presenting research on the enabling environment for investment in water security. It marks the beginning of a process to apply the tool and support policy reforms. The report refrains from offering policy recommendations, focusing on testing the scorecard's ability to assess conditions to attract and sustain investing in water security. For an illustration of country-specific policy recommendations, please refer to the forthcoming Environment Working Paper 'Enabling environment for investment in water security: Pilot test in the EU’s Eastern Partner Countries - Armenia case study'.
  • 7-December-2023


    Financing Uzbekistan’s Green Transition - Capital Market Development and Opportunities for Green Bond Issuance

    The scale of Uzbekistan’s green transition requires a marked increase in private financing to fill the existing spending gap. The outsized role of the state in Uzbekistan’s economy and its underdeveloped domestic capital market act as significant constraints and call for a diversification of sources to finance the green transition. Since 2021, Uzbekistan has made green bonds a central part of its strategy to fill the financing gap and mobilise new sources of capital for its domestic green infrastructure projects. This publication explores the current market and institutional set-up in Uzbekistan, the reforms that have led to recent issuances of both sovereign and corporate thematic bonds, and the remaining barriers to further uptake of the instrument. The report also provides policy recommendations related to the market's institutional set up, Uzbekistan's regulatory framework for debt capital markets and emerging opportunities for further green bond use aimed at key stakeholders, including policy makers and market participants.
  • 4-December-2023


    Multi-level governance and subnational finance in Asia and the Pacific

    Subnational governments in Asia and the Pacific are key providers of the public services and infrastructure required to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. Given this role, it is essential that policymakers and development partners understand and support the effective functioning of multi-level governance structures and subnational government finances across the region. This joint OECD-ADB report provides a comprehensive overview of subnational governments across Asia and the Pacific. It covers over 467,000 subnational governments from 26 countries, which represent 53% of the world’s population and 40% of global GDP. On average in 2020, subnational governments in the region accounted for 29% of total public expenditure (8.8% of GDP), 35% of total public revenue (8.5% of GDP) and 38% of public investment (2% of GDP). Harnessing unique data from the 3rd edition of the OECD-UCLG World Observatory on Subnational Government Finance and Investment, the analysis highlights how decentralisation and territorial reforms have reconfigured the structures and finances of subnational governments in the region. It covers a range of topics including fiscal rules, financial management capacity, priority-based budgeting, asset management and the use of public-private partnerships.
  • 24-October-2023


    Final event - Monitoring Uzbekistan’s Progress towards Green Growth Using the OECD Green Growth Indicators Framework

    The event was a formal launch the main findings of the report: Greening the Economy in Uzbekistan - The State of Play in 2023 and associated web platform.

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  • 9-June-2023


    Uzbekistan joins the Inclusive Framework on BEPS and participates in the agreement to address the tax challenges arising from the digitalisation of the economy

    Uzbekistan joins international efforts against tax evasion and avoidance by joining the OECD/G20 Inclusive Framework on BEPS. Uzbekistan has also committed to addressing the tax challenges arising from the digitalisation of the economy by joining the two-pillar plan to reform the international taxation rules and ensure that multinational enterprises pay a fair share of tax wherever they operate.

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  • 17-May-2023


    Insights on the Business Climate in Uzbekistan

    Addressing barriers to private-sector development has been a long-standing ambition of the government of Uzbekistan, with an extensive programme of reforms that began in 2017 redoubling efforts to foster the growth of a more competitive and productive population of private-sector firms. Uzbekistan needs a more dynamic and innovative private sector if it is to meet the challenges and seize the opportunities of the green and digital transitions, which create a new impetus for accelerating these reforms. Elaborating on feedback garnered through a small, focussed survey of foreign firms in Uzbekistan, this report provides new insights into their perceptions of the ongoing reform process and in doing so draws attention to some of the most pressing issues facing policymakers and business.
  • 16-February-2023


    Monitoring Uzbekistan’s Progress towards Green Economy using the OECD Green Growth Indicators framework

    The meeting aims to launch the work in Uzbekistan to improve monitoring progress towards green economy using the green growth indicators framework.

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  • 4-October-2022


    Uzbekistan 2022 Energy Policy Review

    Uzbekistan’s broad economic reforms were expanded to cover energy in 2019 when the government launched a multiphase transition from the state-owned and -operated and subsidised energy sector model to competitive gas, oil and electricity markets with significant private-sector participation and cost-covering energy prices. The reform plans to diversify the country’s energy supply, which domestic natural gas continues to dominate in all sectors, including transport. Natural gas exports will be phased out by 2025 and the gas will be used increasingly to expand petrochemicals production, while Uzbekistan’s significant but unexploited solar and wind resources will be harnessed to help build a cleaner power sector to 2030. While energy use per capita is low, the country’s economy remains one of the most energy-intensive in the world, and massive potential remains to improve energy efficiency through incentives and mandates. This report is intended to help guide Uzbekistan towards a more secure, sustainable and efficient energy future.It proposes several ways to support the government in its reform efforts. The gradual transition to competitive markets and withdrawal of subsidies should be accompanied by support measures for those most in need. For the reform to succeed, an independent and well-resourced energy regulator is also necessary. Furthermore, the financial imbalances in the state-owned energy companies must be addressed and their re emergence avoided. For the long term, as Uzbekistan’s population, cities and economy are projected to grow strongly, a cross-sectoral approach is required to limit the increase in energy demand and energy-related greenhouse gas emissions.
  • 3-October-2022


    Green Economy Transition in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia - Progress and Ways Forward

    Since the 1990’s, the countries of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) have made great progress in pursuing economic development that is also environmentally sustainable. The countries, in collaboration with the GREEN Action Task Force hosted by the OECD, has developed a number of policies aiming to improve environmental quality and social well-being, while creating opportunities for strong economic growth and decent jobs in the region. This report was prepared as the OECD contribution to the ninth 'Environment for Europe' (EfE) Conference (5-7 October 2022). In this context, this report aims to: (i) take stock of progress on policy developments towards a green economy in the EECCA countries; (ii) showcase selected contributions from of the Green Action Task Force that integrate environmental and climate considerations into development pathways of the EECCA countries, and mobilise finance for action; and (iii) provide an outlook for the future, including priority actions that the Task Force in co-operation with the EECCA countries should take to enhance the momentum for green economy transition in the region.
  • 18-April-2022


    Solar Energy Policy in Uzbekistan - A Roadmap

    This Solar Energy Policy in Uzbekistan Roadmap is part of the EU4Energy programme, a five-year initiative funded by the European Union. EU4Energy’s aim is to support the development of evidence-based energy policy design and data capabilities in Eastern Partnership and Central Asian countries, of which Uzbekistan is a part. The main purpose of this roadmap is to guide policy making at all levels to maximise the use of solar energy in Uzbekistan, and to serve as a precursor for a national solar energy strategy. The government of Uzbekistan is invited to consider incorporating the actions outlined in this roadmap so as to enhance the use of solar resources into a dedicated solar energy strategy. This roadmap primarily focuses on increasing solar generation in Uzbekistan's electricity mix, but also touches upon solar heat potential to reduce its dependence on fossil fuels. The roadmap aims to help Uzbekistan formulate its strategies and plans for solar energy deployment across all levels of government. It is also intended to support and guide the activities of other key stakeholders.
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