Partager

Publications & Documents


  • 30-November-2022

    English

    Revenue Statistics: Key findings for Spain

    The OECD’s annual Revenue Statistics report found that the tax-to-GDP ratio in Spain increased by 1.6 percentage points from 36.7% in 2020 to 38.4% in 2021. Between 2020 and 2021, the OECD average increased from 33.6% to 34.1%.

  • 15-November-2022

    English

    Swimming skills around the world - Evidence on inequalities in life skills across and within countries

    Being able to swim empowers individuals to make choices, have agency, and be free to choose core aspects of their life, such as working safely on or near water. It is also associated with lifelong health benefits and reduces the risk of drowning. Using data from the Lloyd’s Register Foundation World Risk Poll 2019, this paper provides the first global estimates of adults’ ability to swim without assistance. Individuals in high-income countries are considerably more likely to report being able to swim without assistance than individuals in low-income countries. Disparities also exist within countries. In particular, women are less likely to be able to swim without assistance than men in virtually all countries, birth cohorts, and levels of education. Investing in reducing inequalities in life skills, such as swimming, can foster economic development and empowerment, especially in light of threats, such as climate change.
  • 8-November-2022

    English

    Understanding how economic conditions and natural disasters shape environmental attitudes - A cross-country comparison to inform policy making

    Understanding adults’ attitudes towards the environment is necessary to gauge the opportunities and challenges of creating effective and politically-feasible climate policies. Using data from the Wellcome Global Monitor 2020, the European Social Survey (Round 8), World Values Survey and EM-DAT, this paper examines how adults’ environmental attitudes vary within and across countries and details how environmental attitudes are associated with adults’ engagement in pro-environmental behaviours and support for environmentally-friendly policies. The paper explores whether the extent to which individuals prioritise the environment over the state of the economy or vice versa depends on individuals’ exposure to natural disasters or negative labour market conditions. Results indicate that people’s economic vulnerability and the sectors they work in impact their attitudes towards their environment and support for public policy. Furthermore, the findings suggest that increases in unemployment and exposure to natural disasters influence the extent to which individuals prioritise the environment.
  • 18-October-2022

    English

    Modernising Social Services in Spain - Designing a New National Framework

    Social services in Spain are confronted with a series of challenges, including growing demand due to population ageing, changing family models, rising inequality and labour market changes. Services are fragmented and, with multiple providers, lack reliable and comprehensive data. There is also a discontinuity between primary and specialised care. The decentralised model of competences generates complexity in management and financing of services. With the current governance and financing system, there are disparities in the type and quality of social services provided across the 17 Spanish Autonomous Communities and two autonomous cities. In addition, there is a lack of portability of benefits throughout the country. This report suggests ways to improve the legal context, move towards more universal services, strengthen quality, and move towards more evidence-based policies.
  • 23-September-2022

    English

    Information technologies for social services in Spain - Reform of the national framework for the provision of social services in Spain

    This paper sets out the OECD’s assessment of the information technology (IT) systems for social services used by the public administration in Spain. It shows that large disparities exist between and within regions in the use of IT tools. The lack of unified systems and the different ways to identify individuals and classify services makes the exchange of information extremely challenging. Improving the national data collection on social services highlights the importance of agreeing on a common terminology and deciding on a set of indicators as well as designing a flexible IT infrastructure to collect the information.
  • 23-September-2022

    English

    Provision of social services in EU countries - Reform of the national framework for the provision of social services in Spain

    This paper provides an overview of how social services are organised in European Union countries. With a special focus on Spain and countries with federal or semi-federal organisation, the paper starts by analysing social services from a legal perspective. It provides a comparative perspective on several concrete aspects of social services: sources of funding (national, regional, local, etc.), organization of service provision, expenditure, human resources, governance and coordination between institutions. The analysis finds that, despite differences across countries, there is no link between the existence of a comprehensive national social services laws and the comprehensiveness of the social service offer (the main differences concern family services and housing services in countries which consider housing as a right). There exist large differences in the contribution of central, regional, and local governments to social expenditure. Spending more on services does not necessarily imply spending less in cash transfers. Indeed, it appears that Nordic countries, that spend more on services as a share of their GDP, also spend more on cash transfers. Finally, the paper stresses the important role of the information technology and the horizontal and vertical coordination mechanisms to improve service quality and accessibility.
  • 6-September-2022

    English

    Young people’s environmental sustainability competence - Emotional, cognitive, behavioural, and attitudinal dimensions in EU and OECD countries

    The paper is the first in a series of two papers mapping young people’s environmental sustainability competence in EU and OECD countries that were prepared as background for the forthcoming OECD Skills Outlook 2023 publication. The papers are the results of a collaboration between the OECD Centre for Skills and the European Commission - Joint Research Centre (Unit B4) on students’ environmental sustainability competence. The second paper is titled: ‘The environmental sustainability competence toolbox: From leaving a better planet to our children to leaving better children for our planet’.
  • 6-September-2022

    English

    The environmental sustainability competence toolbox - From leaving a better planet for our children to leaving better children for our planet

    The paper is the second in a series of two papers mapping young people’s environmental sustainability competence in EU and OECD countries that were prepared as background for the forthcoming OECD Skills Outlook 2023 publication. The papers are the results of a collaboration between the OECD Centre for Skills and the European Commission - Joint Research Centre (Unit B4) on students’ environmental sustainability competence. The first paper is titled ‘Young people’s environmental sustainability competence: Emotional, cognitive, behavioural and attitudinal dimensions in EU and OECD countries.
  • 27-June-2022

    English

    Inclusive growth and resilience in Bilbao, Spain

    Before the pandemic hit, the city of Bilbao had the highest economic growth in Spain from 2000 to 2018, driven by a shift from heavy industry to a service-based economy. It also benefitted from a burgeoning tourism and culture sector, thanks to developments such as the Guggenheim Museum in 1998. Plagued with high unemployment in the late 90s, unemployment started to drop until 2008. However, such promising trends were unable to shield the city from the 2008 global financial and later COVID-19 crisis. This study assesses inequality in Bilbao and how the COVID-19 pandemic and the city’s response and recovery measures have affected its inclusive growth agenda. It also examines how Bilbao’s approach to deploying a smart city strategy and localising the SDGs contributes to the city’s overall resilience and inclusive growth objectives.
  • 9-juin-2022

    Français

    Fiches pays en matière de prix de transfert

    Les fiches par pays sur les législations et pratiques en matière de prix de transfert de pays membres de l'OCDE et non membres.

    Documents connexes
    Also AvailableEgalement disponible(s)
  • 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 > >>