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Economie


  • 5-October-2021

    English

    China’s outward direct investment and its impact on the domestic economy

    Overseas direct investment by Chinese firms increased eight fold over the past decade, making the country as an important investor in stock terms as Japan. Investing in leasing and business services appears to make up nearly half of China’s ODI stock according to official sources, though it is over-estimated owing to the fact that all investment through third parties and vehicles appears under this sector, not under the one where the investment is actually made. Correcting for this caveat by using firm-level M&A and greenfield investment data indicates that in fact China’s ODI mostly goes to resource-based manufacturing. Also, China is just as an important manufacturing investor as is Japan. Estimation results show that overseas direct investment affects domestic employment negatively in the majority of sectors, indicating substitution instead of a complementary relationship. Furthermore, ODI reduces the speed of labour market adjustment to its long-run equilibrium and increases the domestic price elasticity of demand for labour. There is considerable heterogeneity across sectors, but the impact of ODI on domestic fixed asset investment tends to be negative in most sectors.
  • 29-June-2021

    English

    Strengthening Macroprudential Policies in Emerging Asia - Adapting to Green Goals and Fintech

    Many Emerging Asian countries have been refining macroprudential policies, particularly since the Global Financial Crisis. For instance, they have developed policies targeting housing markets and broadly transposed the Basel III requirements into their national legislation. In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, policy makers now need to identify emerging vulnerabilities and their associated financial stability risks and respond with the appropriate macroprudential tools. This publication provides a detailed overview of the current macroprudential policy situation in Emerging Asian countries and explores how the macroprudential policy toolkit has evolved. The report discusses some of the most pressing challenges to financial stability, including the interaction of macroprudential policy with other policies. It also devotes special attention to macroprudential policies for emerging priorities, such as achieving green goals and updating regulatory frameworks to reflect ongoing Fintech developments. Climate change will indeed create new challenges in financial markets, while Fintech developments bring about many economic opportunities and deepen financial systems, but present a variety of novel risks requiring rapid policy responses.
  • 4-February-2021

    English

    Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India - Volume 2021 Issue 1

    The Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India is a regular publication on regional economic growth, development and regional integration in Emerging Asia. It focuses on the economic conditions of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. It also addresses relevant economic issues in China and India to fully reflect economic developments in the region. The Outlook comprises two main parts, each highlighting a particular dimension of recent economic developments in the region. The first part presents the regional economic monitor, depicting the economic outlook and macroeconomic challenges in the region. The second part consists of a special thematic chapter addressing a major issue facing the region. The 2021 edition of the Outlook addresses reallocation of resources to digitalisation in response to COVID-19, with special focuses on health, education and Industry 4.0. During the COVID-19 crisis, digitalisation has proved critical to ensuring the continuity of essential services. The use of e-commerce, digital health tools and on-line education all accelerated sharply during the pandemic in Emerging Asia. However, there is still a lot of work to be done, for the region to be able to get the full benefits of digitalisation.
  • 17-novembre-2020

    Français

    Le financement des PME et des entrepreneurs. Tableau de bord de l’OCDE - Édition spéciale : les conséquences du COVID-19

    Ce rapport est une édition spéciale du Tableau de bord de l’OCDE sur le financement des PME et des entrepreneurs, publication phare de l’OCDE. Il examine en détail les conséquences du COVID-19 sur l’accès des PME au financement, ainsi que les mesures prises en conséquence par les pouvoirs publics. Il apparaît qu’avant la crise, les conditions de financement étaient globalement favorables pour les PME et les entrepreneurs, qui bénéficiaient de faibles taux d’intérêt, de critères accommodants d’octroi des crédits et d’une offre de plus en plus diversifiée d’instruments de financement. Mais la crise du COVID‑19 a profondément bouleversé l’accès des PME au financement. Plus particulièrement, l’effondrement brutal du chiffre d’affaires des entreprises a provoqué de graves pénuries de liquidités qui ont mis en danger la survie de bon nombre d’entreprises viables. Ce rapport fait état d’une augmentation de la demande de prêts bancaires au cours du premier semestre de 2020, et d’une stabilité de l’offre de crédit grâce à l’action des pouvoirs publics. Parallèlement, on a observé un recul d’autres sources de financement, en particulier l’apport de fonds propres au stade du démarrage. Le rapport réunit des données sur le périmètre et l’ampleur des mesures prises par les gouvernements dans le monde, et en précise les principales caractéristiques. Il décrit les principaux enjeux stratégiques du financement des PME qui se poseront au cours des prochaines phases de la pandémie ; il s’agira en effet d’éviter le surendettement des PME, de promouvoir une gamme diversifiée d’instruments de financement, de stimuler la création d’entreprises et de renforcer la résilience des PME par des mesures structurelles.
  • 14-April-2020

    English

    Synthesising good practices in fiscal federalism - Key recommendations from 15 years of country surveys

    The design of intergovernmental fiscal relations can help to ensure that tax and spending powers are assigned in a way to promote sustainable and inclusive economic growth. Decentralisation can enable sub-central governments to provide better public services for households and firms, while it can also make intergovernmental frameworks more complex, harming equity. The challenges of fiscal federalism are multi-faceted and involve difficult trade-offs. This synthesis paper consolidates much of the OECD’s work on fiscal federalism over the past 15 years, with a particular focus on OECD Economic Surveys. The paper identifies a range of good practices on the design of country policies and institutions related strengthening fiscal capacity delineating responsibilities across evels of government and improving intergovernmental co-ordination.
  • 21-November-2019

    English

    Fourth 1+6 Roundtable Meeting

    Thank you for your invitation to the fourth 1 + 6 Roundtable Meeting. Next year marks the 25th anniversary of OECD-China co-operation, and five years since your historic visit to our Headquarters in Paris, where we signed our first Joint Work Programme (JWP).

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  • 10-July-2019

    English

    Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India 2019 – Update - Responding to Environmental Hazards in Cities

    The Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India is a bi-annual publication on regional economic growth, development and regional integration in Emerging Asia. It focuses on the economic conditions of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. It also addresses relevant economic issues in China and India to fully reflect economic developments in the region.The update of the Outlook comprises three main parts, each highlighting a particular dimension of recent economic developments in the region. The first part presents the regional economic monitor, depicting the economic outlook and macroeconomic challenges in the region. The second and third parts consist of special thematic chapters addressing a major issue facing the region. This update focuses on smart cities, discussing in particular smart city strategies and urban environmental risks.
  • 16-avril-2019

    Français

    La Chine doit poursuivre sur la voie des réformes pour une croissance durable, plus verte et plus inclusive

    La croissance chinoise continue de ralentir au fur et à mesure de son rééquilibrage, face aux vents contraires des tensions commerciales et de l’affaiblissement de l’économie mondiale, qui sapent les exportations et sont sources d’incertitudes.

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  • 6-November-2018

    English

    OECD and China: strengthening multilateralism, partnering on international standards

    Inequalities of income, wealth and opportunity continue to divide our societies and fuel political uncertainty and turbulence. In the OECD, the income gap between the top and the bottom deciles is now almost 10 times, up from 7 times in the 1980s. We have to reverse these trends with growth that is more inclusive, which empowers people and places that have been left behind.

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  • 7-September-2018

    English

    Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India 2018 - Update - Promoting Opportunities in E-commerce

    The Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India is a bi-annual publication on regional economic growth, development and regional integration in Emerging Asia. It focuses on the economic conditions of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. It also addresses relevant economic issues in China and India to fully reflect economic developments in the region.The update of the Outlook comprises two main parts, each highlighting a particular dimension of recent economic developments in the region. The first part presents the regional economic monitor, depicting the economic outlook and macroeconomic challenges in the region. And the second part consists of a special thematic chapter addressing a major issue facing the region. This update focuses on promoting opportunities in e-commerce.
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