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  • 29-April-2023

    English

    Business Handbook on Due Diligence in the Cocoa Sector - Addressing Child Labour and Forced Labour

    This handbook aims to help companies identify, prevent and address child labour and forced labour risks, in the cocoa sector. The handbook builds on the leading international, government-backed standards on supply chain due diligence and responsible business conduct: the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and the associated OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Business Conduct, and the OECD-FAO Guidance for Responsible Agricultural Supply Chains. This handbook was developed in collaboration with the International Cocoa Initiative (ICI), with financial support from the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) and technical inputs from the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GIZ).
  • 28-April-2023

    English

    Financial literacy and digitalisation for MSMEs in South East Europe - A tool for empowering owners and managers

    This report analyses the relationship between financial literacy, inclusion, and awareness, as well as the use of financial products and services, and the digitalisation of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs). It presents the results of a thorough data collection and analysis exercise carried out with owners and managers of MSMEs in Bulgaria, Croatia, Georgia, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Romania in 2021 and 2022.
  • 27-April-2023

    English

    Conflict transformation and the role of responsible artisanal and small-scale mining - Supporting peace through supply chain due diligence

    The informal extractive sector is a major source of employment in most countries affected by conflict but has up until now been largely left aside when identifying reinsertion opportunities for ex-combatants. This paper identifies synergies between disarmament, demobilisation, and reintegration (DDR) programmes implemented in conflict-affected and high-risk areas and existing supply chain due diligence initiatives fostering the integration of artisanal and small-scale miners (ASM) in global supply chains in these areas. The report highlights the role that OECD-led initiatives to support ASM formalisation in conflict zones can play to support DDR programmes.
  • 27-April-2023

    English

    Assessing biodiversity-related financial risks - Navigating the landscape of existing approaches

    Although measurements of biodiversity-related financial risks are in their infancy, several metrics and indicators are available to assess their impacts and dependencies in the financial system, and approaches are emerging to translate biodiversity risks into financial risks. This mapping paper provides a comprehensive catalogue and literature review of existing and emerging definitions, key metrics and indicators, measurement approaches, tools and practices for central banks, financial supervisors, and financial market participants to measure biodiversity-related financial risks.
  • 25-April-2023

    English

    Financial Literacy in Poland

    This report reviews existing financial education initiatives in Poland, including their coverage and effectiveness when possible. Based on OECD analysis of available research and taking relevant international good practices into account, it identifies financial literacy needs and gaps in financial education provision to support the development of a national strategy for financial education in Poland.

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  • 5-April-2023

    English

    Digital Financial Literacy in Portugal

    This project is carried out with funding by the European Union via the Technical Support Instrument and in cooperation with the European Commission Directorate General for Structural Reform Support (DG REFORM).

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  • 3-April-2023

    English

    Innovative providers’ payment models for promoting value-based health systems - Start small, prove value, and scale up

    Innovative providers’ payment models represent an important policy lever that could be used to promote value-based health systems. By bundling services across the continuum of care or to target acute events or chronic conditions, innovative payment models set financial incentives for providers to increase efficiency in service delivery, improve health outcomes and enhance patient experience with care. This paper offers insights on value-based payment models, a type of innovative payment model implemented in several OECD countries and reviews the publicly available evidence on the impact of those payment models on value. Innovative payment models tend to be exceptional and small-scale compared to activity-based payment models and have been extensively piloted in the United States while implementation and evaluation in other countries is limited. The publicly available empirical evidence points to modest efficiency and quality gains from value-based payment models. Impact on healthcare spending, outcomes and patient experience varies across programmes. Given the significant variation in the key features of value-based payment models and the context-specific issues they address, those models do not offer a one-size-fits-all solution. This paper outlines several intervention points that policy makers need to consider when designing and implementing value-based payment models to maximise their positive outcome.
  • 3-April-2023

    English

    Communication and Engagement with SMEs - Supporting SMEs to Get Tax Right

    This report examines effective communication strategies that tax administrations can use to assist small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in fulfilling their tax obligations. It analyses the various tools and channels available to tax administrations and their respective roles. The report draws on examples from the OECD Forum on Tax Administration members and includes two detailed case studies. The report was drafted by officials from the United Kingdom’s HM Revenue and Customs, with support from the OECD Forum on Tax Administration's Community of Interest on SMEs.
  • 28-March-2023

    English

    Enhancing the insurance sector’s contribution to climate adaptation

    Insurance coverage plays an important role in protecting households, businesses and governments from the financial impacts of climate-related disasters. However, climate change is expected to increase the frequency and/or intensity of a range of climate-related (weather) perils and could potentially limit the availability of affordable insurance in the future. Risk reduction through adaptation to climate change will be the only sustainable means to limit the increase in future climate damages and losses and potential disruptions to insurance markets. This paper examines the contribution of the insurance sector to climate adaptation. It outlines some of the challenges to assessing future climate risks, encouraging policyholder risk reduction and supporting resilient reinstatement. The paper also identifies potential approaches that policymakers, regulators and supervisors could consider to support a greater contribution of the insurance sector to climate adaptation.
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