Policy Instrument Database


About the OECD PINE Database

The database

“Policy Instruments for the Environment” (PINE) is a unique database gathering detailed information on policy instruments relevant for environmental protection and natural resource management.

The OECD started building this database in 1996, initially collecting only information on environmentally related taxes in OECD countries. Today, the database contains information on multiple types of policy instruments, and it covers more than 90 countries globally.

PINE provides the same type of information for each policy instrument, structured into a large number of quantitative and qualitative variables. Its relational structure allows for the analysis of policies across different themes and its data are structured for statistical analysis.

PINE database coverage

  • 6 types of policy instruments;
  • More than 90 countries;
  • Over 3 400 different policy instruments, of which 3 100 are currently in force.

Key information in one place

PINE gathers essential descriptive information in one place. For each instrument, you can find:

  • when it was introduced;
  • what it applies to;
  • the geographical coverage;
  • the environmental domains it aims to address;
  • the industries concerned;
  • revenues, costs or rates;
  • exemptions.

Countries and themes

Country coverage

Environmental policy instruments by type

Environmental policy instruments by type 2018

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Disclaimer: This document, as well as any data and any map included herein, are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.

Environmentally related tax revenue

In-depth coverage of tax bases

Environmentally related taxes represent about a half of all instruments in the OECD PINE database. The tax bases covered include:

  • Energy products (including vehicle fuels); 
  • Motor vehicles and transport services;
  • Measured or estimated emissions to air and water, ozone depleting substances, certain non-point sources of water pollution, waste management and noise, as well as management of water, land, soil, forests, biodiversity, wildlife and fish stocks.



Click to enlarge 

Biodiversity-relevant policy instruments

How to access the data

Summary statistics


Browse the policy microdata at the PINE database portal. Pre-defined queries will allow you to search:

  • by type of economic instrument (tax, fee/charge, tradable permit, etc.);
  • by country;
  • by environmental domain;
  • by industry.

Build your own query

To build your own SQL query and access the full relational database:

How to contribute


All countries are welcome to participate in the PINE database. Government ministries or agencies, and recognised research institutes, are welcome to join the network of PINE country experts.

Policy instruments implemented across all branches of government can be integrated into PINE insofar as they have environmental relevance.

Join the network of PINE country experts by writing to

  • Information is collected via a network of 200 country experts (including government agencies, research institutes and international organisations).
  • Registered experts update the data at least once per year through our password-protected interface.
  • The OECD Secretariat then approves the data, in consultation with countries, before they are published online.

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