“Policy Instruments for the Environment” (PINE) is a unique database gathering detailed information on policy instruments relevant for environmental protection and natural resource management.
The OECD started building this database in 1996, initially collecting only information on environmentally related taxes in OECD countries. Today, the database contains information on multiple types of policy instruments, and it covers more than 90 countries globally.
PINE provides the same type of information for each policy instrument, structured into a large number of quantitative and qualitative variables. Its relational structure allows for the analysis of policies across different themes and its data are structured for statistical analysis.
PINE database coverage
6 types of policy instruments;
More than 90 countries;
Over 3 400 different policy instruments, of which 3 100 are currently in force.
Key information in one place
PINE gathers essential descriptive information in one place. For each instrument, you can find:
Disclaimer: This document, as well as any data and any map included herein, are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.
Environmentally related tax revenue
In-depth coverage of tax bases
Environmentally related taxes represent about a half of all instruments in the OECD PINE database. The tax bases covered include:
Energy products (including vehicle fuels);
Motor vehicles and transport services;
Measured or estimated emissions to air and water, ozone depleting substances, certain non-point sources of water pollution, waste management and noise, as well as management of water, land, soil, forests, biodiversity, wildlife and fish stocks.
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Green Growth Indicators 2017
This report updates and extends the set of green growth indicators presented in the 2014 and 2011 editions. It charts the progress that OECD countries and G20 economies have made since 1990.
The 2017 edition places greater emphasis on the role of policy action, with enriched discussion on environmentally related taxes and subsidies, technology and innovation, and international financial flows.
Environmental Performance Reviews
The OECD Environmental Performance Reviews provide independent assessments of countries’ progress towards their environmental policy objectives. Reviews promote peer learning, enhance government accountability, and provide targeted recommendations aimed at improving environmental performance, individually and collectively. They are supported by a broad range of economic and environmental data, and evidence-based analysis. Each cycle of Environmental Performance Reviews covers all OECD countries and selected partner economies.
Environment at a Glance 2015
Environment at a Glance measures the decoupling of environmental pressure from economic growth and sheds light on the progress made by OECD countries in addressing climate change, air and water pollution, the management of waste and natural resources and the protection of biodiversity. It examines major trends in sectors such as energy, transport and agriculture and reviews developments in environmentally related taxation, official development assistance and research and development budgets. These indicators are regularly used in OECD work to track environmental progress and inform policy analysis and country reviews.
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