Tax policy analysis

Effective Carbon Rates 2023


Effective Carbon Rates 2023

Published 27 November 2023

Successfully transitioning to net-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions requires effective mitigation policy packages, which include carbon pricing measures: a cost-effective policy instrument that not only reduces emissions but also generates revenue to support the transition. This fourth edition of Effective Carbon Rates provides an overview of the carbon pricing landscape, examining fuel excise taxes, carbon taxes, and emissions trading systems (ETSs) through 2021, with updates on developments until 2023. The policy mechanisms examined directly impact the cost of emitting GHGs, influencing shifts in production, consumption, and investment towards low- or zero-carbon options. The analysis covers 72 countries which together account for approximately 80% of global GHG emissions. The report focuses on developments in ETSs and transport fuel taxes amidst the energy crisis and provides comprehensive and comparable data on the current status of GHG emissions pricing that can assist policymakers in identifying priorities and refining carbon mitigation strategies.



Watch the launch event!

OECD COP28 Virtual Pavilion: Resilience and reform in carbon pricing: Adapting to new realities

27 November 2023 | 16:30-18:00 CET

The #OECDatCOP28 virtual pavilion brings together leading experts to discuss new realities in the carbon pricing landscape with the emergence of border carbon adjustment measures and large-scale government support for low-carbon technologies. The session explored the implications of these new developments on climate change mitigation efforts, particularly on carbon pricing as a policy tool.



Effective Carbon Rates measures carbon pricing of greenhouse gas emissions in 72 countries, covering 80% of world emissions. This companion dataset provides a comprehensive view on carbon pricing, including fuel excise taxes, carbon taxes and tradable emission permit prices.


Country summaries

 ArgentinaAustraliaAustriaBangladesh | BelgiumBrazilBurkina Faso | CanadaChileChina | ColombiaCosta RicaCôte d'Ivoire | Cyprus | CzechiaDenmarkDominican Republic | Ecuador | Egypt | Estonia  | Ethiopia | FinlandFranceGermanyGhana | Greece  | Guatemala | HungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIrelandIsraelItalyJamaica | JapanKazakhstan | Kenya | KoreaKyrgyzstan | Latvia | Lithuania | LuxembourgMadagascar | Malaysia | MexicoMorocco | NetherlandsNew ZealandNigeria | NorwayPanama | Paraguay | Peru | Philippines | PolandPortugalRwanda | Slovak RepublicSloveniaSouth AfricaSpainSri Lanka | SwedenSwitzerlandTürkiyeUganda | Ukraine | United KingdomUnited States | Uruguay


Interpreting the figures in the country summaries (PDF)

Key figures


Related reading


further information


The OECD is grateful to the Kingdom of Belgium Federal Public Service, Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation for a voluntary contribution that has supported this work.

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