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Reports


  • 26-July-2021

    English

    The Public Sector Pay System in Israel

    This report analyses the pay system in Israel’s public sector, and provides recommendations to align it with the strategic priorities of the government. It recommends ways to simplify job classification and better match pay to market rates, particularly in areas where the public sector has trouble competing for talent. It also identifies opportunities to better reward performance, productivity and job responsibilities. In Israel, no pay reform is possible without the agreement and active collaboration of public sector unions, and so the second part of this report focuses on public sector labour relations and makes recommendations to improve the functioning of the collective bargaining process in Israel’s public sector. This report contributes to the ongoing work of the OECD’s Public Employment and Management working party, to support the implementation of the Recommendation of Council on Public Service Leadership and Capability.
  • 16-July-2021

    English

    Reforming the taxation of housing in Israel

    This paper examines the taxation of housing in Israel, and proposes a set of reforms to improve the efficiency and fairness of the current system. Israel’s housing tax system faces similar problems to those of many other OECD countries. In particular, a bias arises in favour of owner-occupied property relative to rented property due to the non-taxation of imputed rents and most capital gains. That said, unlike many OECD countries, Israel taxes some owner-occupied capital gains (above a generous threshold) and generally does not allow mortgage interest relief for owner-occupied properties, reducing the extent of the distortion more than in many countries. As with most OECD countries, Israel levies highly distortionary transaction taxes, although a zero-rate band significantly limits the number of owner-occupied house purchases subject to the tax. Additionally, Israel’s recurrent property tax (the Arnona) faces a number of design problems, while the tax rules for rental income are complex and subject to significant tax evasion. To address these concerns, a reform package is proposed that involves a gradual and broadly revenue-neutral shift away from transaction taxes towards recurrent taxation of residential property, via increases in both the recurrent property tax and rental income taxation. The redesign of the recurrent property tax from an area-based to a market value-based tax is also proposed, as are a number of more technical reforms.
  • 15-June-2021

    English, PDF, 347kb

    OECD Skills Outlook 2021: How does Israel compare?

    The Skills Outlook Country Profile details key indicators to assess the extent to which Israel is able to provide strong foundations for lifelong learning; promote effective transitions into further education, training and the labour market and engage adults in learning. It also evaluates the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on adult learning and the labour market.

    Related Documents
  • 15-April-2021

    English

    Making Dispute Resolution More Effective – MAP Peer Review Report, Israel (Stage 2) - Inclusive Framework on BEPS: Action 14

    Under Action 14, countries have committed to implement a minimum standard to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of the mutual agreement procedure (MAP). The MAP is included in Article 25 of the OECD Model Tax Convention and commits countries to endeavour to resolve disputes related to the interpretation and application of tax treaties. The Action 14 Minimum Standard has been translated into specific terms of reference and a methodology for the peer review and monitoring process. The peer review process is conducted in two stages. Stage 1 assesses countries against the terms of reference of the minimum standard according to an agreed schedule of review. Stage 2 focuses on monitoring the follow-up of any recommendations resulting from jurisdictions' Stage 1 peer review report. This report reflects the outcome of the Stage 2 peer monitoring of the implementation of the Action 14 Minimum Standard by Israel.
  • 27-March-2021

    English

    International Trade by Commodity Statistics - Volume 2020 Issue 6

    This reliable source of yearly data covers a wide range of statistics on international trade of OECD countries and provides detailed data in value by commodity and by partner country. The first three volumes of International Trade by Commodity Statistics each contain the tables for six countries, published in the order in which they become available. The fourth and fifth contain seven countries and the sixth volume includes five countries as well as the OECD country groupings OECD Total and EU28-Extra. For each country, this publication shows detailed tables relating to the Harmonised System HS 2012 classification, Sections and Divisions (one- and two- digit). Each table presents imports and exports of a given commodity with more than seventy partner countries or country groupings for the most recent five-year period available.
  • 22-December-2020

    English

    Reducing socio-economic differences between municipalities in Israel

    Despite being one of the smallest countries in the OECD, Israel is marked by significant socio-economic disparities, which have a clear spatial dimension. Ethnic and religious groups with weak socio-economic outcomes are not benefitting from the thriving high-tech sector in the centre of the country. As a result, there is a persistent lack of employment opportunities in the peripheral areas alongside skills shortages in the dynamic centre. Inequalities between municipalities are the highest in the OECD. Moreover, the current pandemic has hit poorer Haredi neighbourhoods particularly hard. The government should reduce barriers that prevent segments of the population from fully participating in the economic process and give everyone a similar chance to succeed, regardless of where he or she was born. This will require equal access to high-quality education, affordable housing, reasonable public transportation and improved urban planning in every municipality to reduce spatial divides and segregation of disadvantaged households. Local authorities can play a significant role, since good municipal government and effective policies to achieve national priorities are the best means to improve the outcomes of residents of poor areas.
  • 22-December-2020

    English

    Enhancing the efficiency and equity of the tax system in Israel

    Israel’s tax mix is reasonably growth- and employment-friendly. Nonetheless, tax reform is needed to foster an inclusive recovery from the COVID-19 crisis and help tackle Israel’s main economic and societal challenges of high poverty, including among those in work, and slow aggregate productivity growth. The earned income tax credit has been an effective tool to reduce poverty and increase employment among the low-skilled and could be further expanded. The business tax system provides large benefits that aim to incentivise companies to become more productive, but the existing design may create distortions. This preferential tax treatment should be reviewed with a view to better targeting the scheme to ensure net benefits to society. There is also scope to simplify the tax system by removing inefficient tax expenditures and better leverage Israel’s impressive technological capacity to further lower compliance costs and reduce tax evasion. Finally, excise taxes should be adjusted, including by taxing carbon more heavily, to improve environmental and health outcomes.
  • 3-December-2020

    English, PDF, 368kb

    Revenue Statistics: Key findings for Israel

    The OECD’s annual Revenue Statistics report found that the tax-to-GDP ratio in Israel decreased by 0.5 percentage points from 30.9% in 2018 to 30.5% in 2019. Between 2018 and 2019 the OECD average decreased from 33.9% to 33.8%.

  • 30-November-2020

    English

    Building a High-Quality Early Childhood Education and Care Workforce - Further Results from the Starting Strong Survey 2018

    The work of early childhood education and care (ECEC) professionals is the major driver of the quality of an ECEC system. As evidence accumulates on the strong benefits of investing in early education, countries need effective policies to attract, maintain and retain a highly skilled workforce in the sector. This report looks at the makeup of the early childhood education and care workforce across countries, assessing how initial preparation programmes compare across different systems, what types of in-service training and informal learning activities help staff to upgrade their skills, and what staff say about their working conditions, as well as identifying policies that can reduce staff stress levels and increase well-being at work. The report also looks at which leadership and managerial practices in ECEC centres contribute to improving the skills, working conditions and working methods of staff. The OECD Starting Strong Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS Starting Strong) is the first international survey that focuses on the early childhood education and care workforce. It offers an opportunity to learn about the characteristics of ECEC staff and centre leaders, their practices at work, and their views on the profession and the sector. This second volume of findings, Building a High-Quality Early Childhood Education and Care Workforce, examines factors that influence the skills development of ECEC professionals, their working conditions and well-being at work, and leadership in ECEC centres.
  • 17-November-2020

    English

    The impact of COVID-19 on SME financing - A special edition of the OECD Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs Scoreboard

    The COVID-19 crisis has had a profound impact on SME access to finance. In particular, the sudden drop in revenues created acute liquidity shortages, threatening the survival of many viable businesses. The report documents an increase in demand for bank lending in the first half of 2020, and a steady supply of credit thanks to government interventions. On the other hand, other sources of finance declined, in particular early-stage equity. This paper, a special edition of Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs, focuses on the impacts of COVID-19 on SME access to finance, along with government policy responses. It reveals that the pre-crisis financing environment was broadly favourable for SMEs and entrepreneurs, who benefited from low interest rates, loose credit standards and an increasingly diverse offer of financing instruments. It documents the unprecedented scope and scale of the policy responses undertaken by governments world-wide, and details their key characteristics, and outlines the principal issues and policy challenges for the next phases of the pandemic, such as the over-indebtedness of SMEs and the need to continue to foster a diverse range of financing instruments for SMEs.
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