The IEA regularly conducts in-depth peer reviews of the energy policies of its member countries. This process supports energy policy development and encourages the exchange of best practices and experiences. Luxembourg experienced strong economic and population growth between 2008 and 2018. For most of that decade, energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions fell significantly, but they started to increase again in 2016. The government has adopted ambitious energy sector targets, including a 50-55% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2030. Luxembourg faces challenges achieving those targets. Low energy prices for consumers are creating a barrier to the investments needed in energy efficiency and renewables. And the country has a fossil fuel-intensive energy mix driven by a high demand for transportation fuels, notably from transiting freight trucks. Luxembourg is embedded in the European electricity market, a sector that is transforming swiftly as rising shares of variable renewable generation, such as wind and solar PV, put increased attention on security of supply. In this context, Luxembourg plans to expand and upgrade its electricity grids, but the country would benefit further from the deployment of measures to increase energy storage and demand-side response in its power system. It is also important to ensure competitive markets that foster innovation and new energy services. In this report, the IEA provides a range of energy policy recommendations to help Luxembourg smoothly manage the transition to a smart, flexible and sustainable energy system.