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Reports


  • 28-January-2022

    English

    Production Transformation Policy Review of Shenzhen, China - A Journey of Continuous Learning

    Shenzhen is a stellar case of growth and economic transformation. Since its establishment as one of China’s first four Special Economic Zones in 1980, it has evolved at breakneck speed. Shenzhen transformed from a fishing village to a major world trade hub and is now home to global innovators in electronics. The Production Transformation Policy Review (PTPR) of Shenzhen, China reviews the city’s changing policy approaches, focusing on the shift from an assembly to a manufacturing centre and more recently to an innovation and start-up hub. Through a comprehensive assessment of Shenzhen’s experience, this review offers insights into the range of policies and strategies employed to stimulate industrial upgrading and learning in China. It provides lessons and actionable policy recommendations for the growth of cities and emerging economies in their catching-up journey. The PTPR of Shenzhen, China has been carried out in the framework of the OECD Initiative for Policy Dialogue on Global Value Chains, Production Transformation and Development and has benefitted from government-business dialogues and international peer learning (University of Seoul, Korea; University of Georgetown, USA and Digital India Foundation, India).
  • 30-November-2021

    English

    Making Property Tax Reform Happen in China - A Review of Property Tax Design and Reform Experiences in OECD Countries

    This report looks at crucial elements of reforms to growth-friendly recurrent taxes on immovable property. Tax design practices in place in OECD and partner countries are compared and analysed through the lenses of economic theory and empirical analysis. A set of good principles and options for reforming recurrent taxes on immovable property based on the latest experience of property tax reforms around the world are presented that are particularly relevant to the Chinese context, where broader use of recurrent taxes on residential properties is needed to make local public finances more sustainable. Challenges and practices related to the administration of property taxes are explored as well as their interplay with different tax designs. In addition, the main political and administrative hurdles in approving and implementing property tax reforms are discussed, and the approaches commonly employed in successfully dealing with them are examined. Although there are major challenges in designing, reforming and managing a recurrent property tax system, it is possible to overcome these in a manner that allows society to reap benefits in terms of a better allocation of resources, more stable house prices and a fairer income distribution.
  • 21-October-2021

    English

    Evolving Energy Service Companies in China

    Energy service companies (ESCOs) deliver energy efficiency projects that are financed through the resulting energy cost savings. ESCOs can thus unlock energy efficiency action by addressing barriers related to funding and technical expertise. Despite their potential, many governments still struggle to stimulate development of a market for ESCOs. Evolving Energy Service Companies in People’s Republic of China, ('China' hereafter) provides an overview of how China has built the world’s largest and fastest growing ESCO market over the past decades. This report highlights how the government’s strategic measures to set up key agencies for ESCOs, engage the State-Owned Enterprises, and encourage market play by bringing in commercial players, in line with China’s socio-economic transition, have been critical to making the Chinese ESCO model a success. Looking ahead, ESCOs in China continue to evolve, for example by using digital technologies to make their businesses more sustainable and lucrative. Based on the insights gained from a survey of major ESCOs in China, the report highlights the challenges and opportunities of digitalisation and provides some policy insights.
  • 18-October-2021

    English

    Making Dispute Resolution More Effective – MAP Peer Review Report, People's Republic of China (Stage 2) - Inclusive Framework on BEPS: Action 14

    Under Action 14, countries have committed to implement a minimum standard to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of the mutual agreement procedure (MAP). The MAP is included in Article 25 of the OECD Model Tax Convention and commits countries to endeavour to resolve disputes related to the interpretation and application of tax treaties. The Action 14 Minimum Standard has been translated into specific terms of reference and a methodology for the peer review and monitoring process. The peer review process is conducted in two stages. Stage 1 assesses countries against the terms of reference of the minimum standard according to an agreed schedule of review. Stage 2 focuses on monitoring the follow-up of any recommendations resulting from jurisdictions' stage 1 peer review report. This report reflects the outcome of the stage 2 peer monitoring of the implementation of the Action 14 Minimum Standard by the People's Republic of China.
  • 18-October-2021

    English

    An Energy Sector Roadmap to Carbon Neutrality in China

    In September 2020, President Xi Jinping announced that the People’s Republic of China will 'aim to have CO2 emissions peak before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality before 2060'. Amid the growing wave of governments around the world setting targets for reaching net zero emissions, no pledge is as significant as China’s. The country is the world’s largest energy consumer and carbon emitter, accounting for one-third of global CO2 emissions. The pace of China’s emissions reductions will be an important factor in global efforts to limit global warming to 1.5 °C. This report, An Energy Sector Roadmap to Carbon Neutrality in China, responds to the Chinese government’s invitation to the International Energy Agency to cooperate on long-term strategies by setting out pathways for reaching carbon neutrality in China’s energy sector. It shows that achieving carbon neutrality fits with China’s broader development goals, such as increasing prosperity and shifting towards innovation-driven growth. The first pathway in this Roadmap – the Announced Pledges Scenario – reflects the enhanced targets China announced in 2020. The report also explores the implications of a faster transition – the Accelerated Transition Scenario – and the socio-economic benefits it would bring beyond those associated with reducing the impact of climate change. This Roadmap examines the technology challenges and opportunities that this new phase of the clean energy transition will bring for China’s development, with a focus on long-term needs. The technology innovations required in the Chinese context are a key in-depth focus area. The report concludes with a series of policy considerations to inform China’s energy debate.
  • 5-October-2021

    English

    China’s outward direct investment and its impact on the domestic economy

    Overseas direct investment by Chinese firms increased eight fold over the past decade, making the country as an important investor in stock terms as Japan. Investing in leasing and business services appears to make up nearly half of China’s ODI stock according to official sources, though it is over-estimated owing to the fact that all investment through third parties and vehicles appears under this sector, not under the one where the investment is actually made. Correcting for this caveat by using firm-level M&A and greenfield investment data indicates that in fact China’s ODI mostly goes to resource-based manufacturing. Also, China is just as an important manufacturing investor as is Japan. Estimation results show that overseas direct investment affects domestic employment negatively in the majority of sectors, indicating substitution instead of a complementary relationship. Furthermore, ODI reduces the speed of labour market adjustment to its long-run equilibrium and increases the domestic price elasticity of demand for labour. There is considerable heterogeneity across sectors, but the impact of ODI on domestic fixed asset investment tends to be negative in most sectors.
  • 7-September-2021

    English

    Beyond Academic Learning - First Results from the Survey of Social and Emotional Skills

    Over the last few years, social and emotional skills have been rising on the education policy agenda and in the public debate. Policy makers and education practitioners are seeking ways to complement the focus on academic learning, with attention to social and emotional skill development. Social and emotional skills are a subset of an individual’s abilities, attributes and characteristics important for individual success and social functioning. Together, they encompass a comprehensive set of skills essential for students to be able to succeed at school, at work and fully participate in society as active citizens. The benefits of developing children's social-emotional skills go beyond cognitive development and academic outcomes; they are also important drivers of mental health and labour market prospects. The ability of citizens to adapt, be resourceful, respect and work well with others, and to take personal and collective responsibility is increasingly becoming the hallmark of a well-functioning society. The OECD's Survey of Social and Emotional Skills (SSES) is one of the first international efforts to collect data from students, parents and teachers on the social and emotional skills of students at ages 10 and 15. This report presents the first results from this survey. It describes students' social and emotional skills and how they relate to individual, family, and school characteristics. It also examines broader policy and socio-economic contexts related to these skills, and sheds light on ways to help education leaders and policy makers monitor and foster students’ social and emotional skills.
  • 21-July-2021

    English

    Revenue Statistics in Asia and the Pacific 2021 - Emerging Challenges for the Asia-Pacific Region in the COVID-19 Era

    Revenue Statistics in Asia and the Pacific is jointly produced by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)’s Centre for Tax Policy and Administration (CTP) and the OECD Development Centre (DEV) with the co-operation of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Pacific Island Tax Administrators Association (PITAA), and the Pacific Community (SPC) and financial support from the governments of Ireland, Japan, Luxembourg, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. This edition includes a special feature on the emerging challenges for the Asia-Pacific region in the COVID-19 era and ways to address them. It compiles comparable tax revenue statistics for Australia, Bhutan, People’s Republic of China, Cook Islands, Fiji, Indonesia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, the Maldives, Mongolia, Nauru, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Thailand, Tokelau, Vanuatu and Viet Nam ; and comparable non tax revenue statistics for Bhutan, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kazakhstan, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, the Maldives, Mongolia, Nauru, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Singapore, Thailand, Tokelau, Vanuatu and Viet Nam. The model is the OECD Revenue Statistics database which is a fundamental reference, backed by a well established methodology, for OECD member countries. Extending the OECD methodology to Asian and Pacific economies enables comparisons about tax levels and tax structures on a consistent basis, both among Asian and Pacific economies and with OECD, Latin American and Caribbean and African averages.
  • 29-June-2021

    English

    Strengthening Macroprudential Policies in Emerging Asia - Adapting to Green Goals and Fintech

    Many Emerging Asian countries have been refining macroprudential policies, particularly since the Global Financial Crisis. For instance, they have developed policies targeting housing markets and broadly transposed the Basel III requirements into their national legislation. In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, policy makers now need to identify emerging vulnerabilities and their associated financial stability risks and respond with the appropriate macroprudential tools. This publication provides a detailed overview of the current macroprudential policy situation in Emerging Asian countries and explores how the macroprudential policy toolkit has evolved. The report discusses some of the most pressing challenges to financial stability, including the interaction of macroprudential policy with other policies. It also devotes special attention to macroprudential policies for emerging priorities, such as achieving green goals and updating regulatory frameworks to reflect ongoing Fintech developments. Climate change will indeed create new challenges in financial markets, while Fintech developments bring about many economic opportunities and deepen financial systems, but present a variety of novel risks requiring rapid policy responses.
  • 9-April-2021

    English

    Report on China’s shipbuilding industry and policies affecting it

    This report analyses the structural characteristics of China’s shipbuilding industry, notably through comparison of other major shipbuilding economies. Building upon previous reports drafted in 2008 and 2011, it aims to analyse China’s shipbuilding sector from a holistic and multidisciplinary perspective (e.g. the interconnection between trade, competition, monetary, financial, fiscal and industrial policies), with a particular emphasis on government support measures. Key findings from these analyses suggest that: 1) China’s shipbuilding industry has been labelled as a strategic industry, which may equally explain China’s intention to move up the shipbuilding value chain, 2) State-owned conglomerates hold a lot of influence in China’s shipbuilding industry, 3) Government support to the Chinese shipbuilding industry is alleged to have contributed to global excess capacity.
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