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Publications


  • 21-October-2022

    English

    Student Achievement in Türkiye - Findings from PISA and TIMSS International Assessments

    The Republic of Türkiye’s trajectory of improvement over the past two decades stands out internationally. Few other countries have been able to bring previously out-of-school children into the education system and improve performance at the same time. This report provides a picture on how student performance has evolved over this period. It is based on data from the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). The report analyses if factors related to student background – such as gender or socio-economic status – are associated with performance. It also analyses student performance across different cognitive and content domains of learning.
  • 19-October-2022

    English

    Scotland’s Approach to Regulating Water Charges - Innovation and Collaboration

    The price regulation conducted by economic regulators is a high-stakes process, with significant and lasting impacts on current and future service quality and the overall performance of the regulated sector. This report tracks the efforts of the economic regulator of the Scottish water sector to make the results of its price-setting process work better for the customers of today and tomorrow, addressing issues such as customer engagement, sustainable asset management and climate change. Based on the results of a multi-year peer review, it analyses the process and outputs of the price setting process. It also sets out recommendations to help parties strengthen the resilience and stability of the regulatory framework while not losing sight of strategic vision and objectives.
  • 11-octobre-2022

    Français

    En finir avec la fracture scolaire - Avoir des enseignants chevronnés dans les établissements qui en ont le plus besoin

    Les enseignants peuvent façonner le parcours scolaire de leurs élèves. Les recherches montrent ainsi que les enfants obtiennent souvent des résultats scolaires très différents selon l’enseignant qui les prend en charge. Cela soulève des questions : quelles sont les modalités de répartition des enseignants dans les différents pays ? Et dans quelle mesure les élèves issus de milieux différents ont-ils accès à des enseignants chevronnés ? S'appuyant sur la littérature identifiant les caractéristiques et les pratiques d'enseignement qui stimulent la réussite des élèves, ce rapport montre comment les enseignants présentant certaines caractéristiques et pratiques ont tendance à se concentrer dans certains types d’établissements, mais aussi les disparités d’accès des élèves aux enseignants chevronnés selon le milieu socio-économique dont ils sont issus. Il souligne les aspects des systèmes éducatifs qui influencent la manière dont les enseignants sont répartis dans les établissements. Le rapport examine également les conséquences d’une répartition inéquitable des enseignants sur les résultats scolaires des élèves.
  • 6-October-2022

    English

    Anticipatory Innovation Governance Model in Finland - Towards a New Way of Governing

    This report examined how Finland has been incorporating anticipatory functions within its governance system to deal with complex and future challenges in a systemic way. The report applies a new model of anticipatory innovation governance (AIG), developed by the OECD, addressing a considerable gap in prior knowledge and guidance on how governments prepare for unknowable futures. It consists of three parts: an overview of the anticipatory innovation governance model; the assessment of the anticipatory innovation capacity of the Finnish Government; and the pilot case studies, where the principles and functions of the model are explored in practice.
  • 4-October-2022

    English

    Innovative and Entrepreneurial Universities in Latin America

    The review examines how higher education institutions are supporting innovation and entrepreneurship in their surrounding communities. The study focuses on eleven universities located in six countries in Latin America: Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay. The study finds that selected institutions are actively supporting entrepreneurs (university students, but also local entrepreneurs) through courses, incubation and acceleration activities. It also shows that universities are actively engaging with external stakeholders in their surrounding communities, to spur innovation through joint-research, organisation of events (such as festivals, competition). It finds that that while COVID-19 pandemic brought about some challenges, universities managed to stay afloat and keep a steady stream of support to entrepreneurs and partners. The review also illustrates the challenges that universities face when developing these activities (lack of funding, unclear regulation for intellectual property development, etc.) and highlights some opportunities that universities should leverage, particularly in the current context.
  • 3-October-2022

    English

    Green Economy Transition in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia - Progress and Ways Forward

    Since the 1990’s, the countries of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) have made great progress in pursuing economic development that is also environmentally sustainable. The countries, in collaboration with the GREEN Action Task Force hosted by the OECD, has developed a number of policies aiming to improve environmental quality and social well-being, while creating opportunities for strong economic growth and decent jobs in the region. This report was prepared as the OECD contribution to the ninth 'Environment for Europe' (EfE) Conference (5-7 October 2022). In this context, this report aims to: (i) take stock of progress on policy developments towards a green economy in the EECCA countries; (ii) showcase selected contributions from of the Green Action Task Force that integrate environmental and climate considerations into development pathways of the EECCA countries, and mobilise finance for action; and (iii) provide an outlook for the future, including priority actions that the Task Force in co-operation with the EECCA countries should take to enhance the momentum for green economy transition in the region.
  • 3-October-2022

    English

    Shaping the transition - Artificial intelligence and social dialogue

    Rapid advances in the development and adoption of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies provide new opportunities but also raise fears about disruptive labour market and workplace transitions. This working paper examines how social dialogue can shape the AI transition in beneficial ways for both workers and firms. It highlights that social dialogue can generally help foster inclusive labour markets and ease technological transitions, and presents new descriptive evidence together with ongoing initiatives from social partners showing that social dialogue has an important role to play in the AI transition as well. The paper also discusses how AI adoption may affect social dialogue itself, e.g. by adding new pressures on weakening labour relations systems and posing practical challenges to social partners, such as insufficient AI-related expertise and resources to respond to the AI transition. Based on these insights, the paper suggests a few measures for policy makers who would like to support social partners’ efforts in shaping the AI transition.
  • 30-September-2022

    English

    Could insurance provide an alternative to fiscal support in crisis response?

    The COVID-19 pandemic led to significant economic disruptions and revenue losses for business impacted by workplace closure measures aimed at restraining the spread of the virus. Governments provided extensive monetary and fiscal support to address liquidity risks and mitigate the potential for mass insolvencies as few businesses had applicable insurance coverage for these types of losses. This paper examines the fiscal and insurance sector responses to the economic disruptions resulting from COVID-19 workplace closures, the challenges to the availability of insurance coverage for this risk and some of the challenges and risks related to large-scale fiscal support for businesses. It also includes a discussion of the potential contribution of a loss-sharing arrangement between governments and insurance markets for pandemic-related business interruption losses as a means of enhancing the contribution of insurance markets to providing financial protection in the context of future pandemics.
  • 29-September-2022

    English

    Finland’s Right to Learn Programme - Achieving equity and quality in education

    Finland has been widely regarded as one of the most successful education systems in the world. However, recent trends suggest that Finland’s considerable achievements may be at risk. The country’s performance in international student assessments has been declining over the past decade, as gaps among student groups and levels of school segregation have grown. In light of these developments, Finland is advancing a number of policies, notably under the umbrella of the Right to Learn (RtL) Programme, to improve quality and equity in early childhood education and care (ECEC), pre-primary and basic education. This analysis explores the Ministry of Education and Culture’s (OKM) planned reforms in regard to the country’s main education challenges and priorities. At the request of the Ministry, the analysis focusses on three main policy issues: (i) financing equity and quality in education, (ii) expanding participation and strengthen quality in ECEC, and (iii) equalising education opportunities through strengthening the local school policy. A final section looks at some of the cross-cutting issues that emerge from the OECD’s analysis. This analysis offers policy considerations aimed at strengthening the design and implementation of the RtL Programme.
  • 29-September-2022

    English

    Securing reverse supply chains for a resource efficient and circular economy

    Circular economy business models often rely on reverse supply chains and reverse logistics to close material loops, such as recycling waste and scrap into secondary raw materials, and extending product life by promoting direct reuse, repair, refurbishment and remanufacturing. Such activities can extend beyond borders and require the transboundary movement of end-of-life products to enable economies of scale. In this context, this report explores the opportunities and challenges for governments to facilitate cross-border reverse supply chains for a resource efficient and circular economy. It mainly focuses on the role of trade facilitation mechanisms and standards, and provides potential ways forward in utilising them to improve and strengthen cross-border reverse supply chains. The report also investigates other relevant policy responses such as addressing trade restrictions, combatting illegal waste trade, and introducing upstream policies such as eco-design initiatives that may work to support cross-border reverse supply chains.
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