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Reports


  • 6-janvier-2023

    Français

    Un cadre et un financement équitables pour la transition des pays reposant sur les industries extractives (EFFECT)

    Comment les pays en développement producteurs de combustibles fossiles et riches en ressources minérales peuvent-ils concevoir des trajectoires de transition bas carbone qui soient réalistes, équitables et d'un bon rapport coût-efficacité ? Tenant compte de l’hétérogénéité des trajectoires bas carbone, Un cadre et un financement équitables pour les pays en transition reposant sur les industries extractives (ou cadre EFFECT – « Equitable Framework and Finance for Extractive-based Countries in Transition ») propose des pistes d'action pour les autorités publiques, les industries et les institutions financières en quête de solutions. L’objectif de cet outil est de les aider à saisir les opportunités de transformation qu’offre une croissance durable à faible émission de carbone. Il recense les moyens permettant d’atténuer les impacts de la transition sur les industries utilisant des combustibles fossiles, les travailleurs et les ménages défavorisés, ainsi que de prévenir les risques de verrouillage carbone et d’actifs échoués. Reconnaissant la responsabilité partagée des pays producteurs et consommateurs en ce qui concerne la réduction de la production et de la consommation de combustibles fossiles, le cadre EFFECT préconise la création de partenariats porteurs de transformation pour les transferts de technologies, le financement vert et le renforcement des capacités. Enfin, il soutient une répartition équitable des avantages et des coûts de la transition, à la fois entre les différents pays et en leur sein.
  • 5-December-2022

    English

    Weathering Economic Storms in Central Asia - Initial Impacts of the War in Ukraine

    Russia’s war against Ukraine and the international sanctions introduced against the former have had an unexpectedly mild impact on Central Asia, despite the region’s deep economic dependence on its northern neighbour. Notwithstanding high inflation, the five Central Asian states – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan – have so far shown surprising resilience to the economic headwinds: remittances registered record-high figures in the first half of 2022, national currencies quickly rebounded to pre-war levels after an initial drop, and an influx of skilled workers boosted demand for services and hospitality. However, as the medium-term effects of the sanctions against Russia, the global cost-of-living crisis, and China’s economic slowdown start to unfold, Central Asia is faced with lingering uncertainty. This publication provides an assessment of the short-term effects of Russia’s war on Central Asian economies and the policy responses provided. It also analyses the challenges ahead and formulates policy recommendations to make Central Asian economies more resilient and diversified.
  • 2-December-2022

    English

    Climate Tipping Points - Insights for Effective Policy Action

    This report reviews evidence that overshooting 1.5°C may push the earth over several tipping points, leading to irreversible and severe changes in the climate system. If triggered, tipping point impacts will rapidly cascade through socio-economic and ecological systems, leading to severe effects on human and natural systems and imposing important challenges for human adaptation. Of particular concern are the likely collapse of the West Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets and the abrupt melting of permafrost grounds in the Arctic, which would result in additional sea-level rise and greenhouse gas releases, leading to more warming. Based on the most recent science and consultations with renowned experts, Climate Tipping Points: Insights for Effective Policy Action argues that it is no longer appropriate to consider the risk of crossing tipping points as low-probability. Overshooting 1.5°C may likely lead to irreversible and severe impacts, which must be avoided, heightening the urgency to drastically reduce emissions within this decade. The report calls for a shift in how tipping points are treated in climate policy today and provides recommendations on how climate risk management strategies can better reflect the risks of tipping points in the areas of mitigation, adaptation and technological innovation.
  • 26-November-2022

    English

    Multilateral Development Finance 2022

    Nearly three years after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, a succession of mutually reinforcing crises and a challenging global context are putting the multilateral development system under pressure. Multilateral development finance is stretched across an ever expanding list of priorities, ranging from humanitarian crisis response to the provision of global and regional public goods. The urgent nature of these crises requires renewed efforts to strengthen the financial capacity of the multilateral development system but should not divert attention from other parts of the reform agenda, such as the need to reduce the fragmentation of the multilateral architecture. This third edition of the Multilateral Development Finance report presents recent trends in multilateral development finance in order to inform decisions by the members of the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) on their strategic engagement with multilateral organisations. It presents an overview of challenges and ongoing reform efforts, and examines the evolution of financial flows to, and from, multilateral organisations. The report is supplemented by online statistics on DAC members’ multilateral contributions, available in the Development Co-operation Profiles.
  • 25-November-2022

    English

    Rural Policy Review of Colombia 2022

    Rural regions in Colombia have untapped potential to boost wealth and well-being in the country. Despite remarkable economic growth over the last two decades, Colombia’s development policy needs to increase its focus on rurality, as regional inequalities remain high by OECD standards and structural challenges still prevent greater development in rural places. This report assesses trends, challenges and opportunities of rural Colombia and examines the country’s rural development policy. It offers recommendations to mobilise rural assets and improve rural well-being with a focus on: strengthening multi-government coordination and policy implementation; enhancing transport and broadband connectivity as well as accessibility to quality education and health and; improving land use management in rural Colombia.
  • 24-novembre-2022

    Français

    Feuille de route G20/OCDE sur les pays en développement et la fiscalité internationale - Rapport de l'OCDE à l'intention des ministres des Finances et des gouverneurs de la banque centrale du G20

    Cette Feuille de route constitue un suivi du rapport au G20 de 2021 sur les pays en développement et le Cadre inclusif de l’OCDE et du G20 sur l’érosion de la base d’imposition et le transfert de bénéfices (BEPS). Elle tient compte des progrès réalisés depuis 2021 et établit les principales priorités. Le rapport présente également une feuille de route permettant d’orienter les initiatives prises par les membres du G20 intéressés et d’autres parties prenantes, afin d’aider les pays en développement à optimiser les bénéfices d’un engagement multilatéral en matière de fiscalité internationale, et de capitaliser sur les avancées réalisées en termes de politique et d’administration fiscales visant à soutenir la réalisation des Objectifs de développement durable.
  • 16-November-2022

    English

    Intermediary Cities and Climate Change - An Opportunity for Sustainable Development

    The consequences of climate change in developing countries are worsening fast: many ecosystems will shortly reach points of irreversible damage, and socio-economic costs will continue to rise. To alleviate the future impacts on populations and economies, policy makers are looking for the spaces where they can make the greatest difference. This report argues that intermediary cities in developing countries are such spaces. Indeed, in the context of fast population growth and urbanisation, these small and medium-sized cities silently play an essential role in the rapid transformation of human settlements, not least by supporting the massive flows of population, goods and services between rural and metropolitan areas. Most of those intermediary cities are still growing: now is therefore the time to influence their dynamics, and thereby the entire design of urbanisation in those regions, in ways that limit the exposure of urban dwellers to climate shocks and avoid carbon lock-in. To that end, based on fresh evidence and policy analysis on the challenges faced by these agglomerations in the context of climate change, the report makes the case for new development approaches to avoid the unsustainable paths followed by too many cities in the recent past.
  • 15-November-2022

    English

    SIDS’ Access to Green Funds

    This paper provides an overview of green funds finance to Small Island Developing States (SIDS) reported to the OECD Creditor Reporting System (CRS). It shows that green funds finance to SIDS has significantly increased in recent years (2019-20).

    Related Documents
  • 14-November-2022

    English

    Revenue Statistics in Africa 2022

    This annual publication compiles comparable tax revenue and non-tax revenue statistics for 31 countries in Africa: Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Cameroon, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eswatini, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone South Africa, Togo, Tunisia and Uganda. The report extends the well-established methodology on the classification of public revenues set out in the OECD Interpretative Guide to African countries, thereby enabling comparison of tax levels and tax structures not only across the continent, but also with the OECD, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Asia and the Pacific. Data on African countries presented in this publication are also included in the OECD’s Global Revenue Statistics database, which is a fundamental reference for analysis of domestic resource mobilisation. This edition includes a special feature on taxation of the informal sector in Africa. The publication is jointly undertaken by the OECD Centre for Tax Policy and Administration, the OECD Development Centre, the African Union Commission and the African Tax Administration Forum, with the financial support of the European Union. SPECIAL FEATURE: EFFICIENT TAXATION OF THE INFORMAL SECTOR IN AFRICA
  • 11-novembre-2022

    Français

    Examens de l'OCDE sur la coopération pour le développement : États-Unis 2022

    Le Comité d’aide au développement (CAD) de l’OCDE mène tous les cinq à six ans un examen par les pairs qui passe en revue les efforts de coopération pour le développement de chacun de ses membres. Ces examens visent à améliorer la qualité et l’efficacité de leur coopération pour le développement, en mettant en évidence les bonnes pratiques et en recommandant des améliorations. Les États-Unis ont endossé un rôle de chef de file en apportant des contributions d’APD substantielles en réaction aux crises multiples. L’aide extérieure est programmée et acheminée par 21 organismes publics américains. USAID intègre systématiquement la collaboration, l’apprentissage et l’adaptation dans les cycles de ses programmes, et elle s’attache à améliorer la diversité, l’équité et l’inclusion en se faisant le champion des approches pilotées à l’échelon local. Cet examen par les pairs formule, à l’intention des États-Unis, un ensemble de recommandations visant à atténuer les répercussions négatives transnationales de leurs politiques publiques, à encourager des dotations budgétaires plus flexibles concordant avec les besoins, à adopter une approche plus claire vis-à-vis des partenariats multilatéraux, et à doter leur institution de financement du développement des moyens qui lui permettront de mener à bien sa mission. Il recommande aux États-Unis de placer l’efficacité du développement au cœur de l’adaptation au contexte local, de renforcer les ressources humaines, et de prendre en compte la prévention des conflits dans l’ensemble des programmes par pays.
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