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Reports


  • 22-December-2020

    English

    How reliable are social safety nets? - Value and accessibility in situations of acute economic need

    Social protection systems use a range of entitlement criteria. First-tier support typically requires contributions or past employment in many countries, while safety net benefits are granted on the basis of need. In a context of volatile and uncertain labour markets, careful and continuous monitoring of the effectiveness of income support is a key input into an evidence-based policy process. This paper proposes a novel empirical method for monitoring the accessibility and levels of safety net benefits. It focusses on minimum-income benefits (MIB) and other non-contributory transfers and relies on data on the amounts of cash support that individuals in need receive in practice. Results show that accessibility and benefit levels differ enormously across countries – for instance, in 2015/16, more than four out of five low-income workless one-person households received MIB in Australia, France and the United Kingdom, compared to only one in five in Greece, Italy and Korea, three countries that have since sought to strengthen aspects of safety-net provisions.
  • 11-December-2020

    English

    Overcoming administrative fragmentation for better mobility and accessibility - The case of the Madrid Autonomous Community

    Overcoming administrative fragmentation to build an integrated public transport network is one of the main actions taken in the Madrid Region to improve mobility. The lack of a regional development plan and the poor linkages between transport and urban development policies are, however, the main obstacles to fostering accessibility. The paper argues that a regional development plan and spatial planning to underpin transport investment decisions are needed to make the most of transport infrastructure and foster growth, well-being and effective environmental policies. This paper aims to reveal policy lessons from the experience of the Madrid Region in fostering urban mobility and accessibility, which could inspire policy change in other EU cities.
  • 7-December-2020

    English

    Education Policy Outlook in Spain

    This country policy profile on education in Spain is part of the Education Policy Outlook series. Building on the first country policy profile for Spain (2014), it offers a concise analysis of where the education system stands today in terms of strengths, challenges and ongoing policy efforts, and how this compares to other systems. The profile brings together over a decade's worth of policy analysis by the Education Policy Outlook, as well as the latest OECD data, relevant thematic and country-specific work and other international and national evidence.
  • 3-December-2020

    English, PDF, 366kb

    Revenue Statistics: Key findings for Spain

    The OECD’s annual Revenue Statistics report found that the tax-to-GDP ratio in Spain did not change between 2018 and 2019, remaining at 34.6%. Between 2018 and 2019 the OECD average decreased from 33.9% to 33.8%.

  • 3-December-2020

    English

    Preparing the Basque Country, Spain for the Future of Work

    COVID-19 is testing the Basque Country’s (Spain) resilience. Before COVID-19, employment indicators were recovering from the 2008 crisis, while automation of production was underway. Job quality remained low despite rising educational attainment in the region. COVID-19 is likely to accelerate structural changes in the labour market, including automation and digitalisation. Firms may increasingly look to technology as a way to pandemic proof their operations, while individuals may develop preferences for automated services as opposed to face to face contact. This OECD report sheds light on the potential impacts of automation on the Basque labour market, including which types of jobs and groups of workers are most likely to be impacted, in light of COVID-19 and other labour market changes. The report also highlights the critical role to be played by employment services, training policies and social dialogue to help people and firms make labour market transitions while upholding social cohesion. The report delves into how the Basque Country’s employment and skills system can continue to be at the front line as the crisis evolves.
  • 17-November-2020

    English

    The impact of COVID-19 on SME financing - A special edition of the OECD Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs Scoreboard

    The COVID-19 crisis has had a profound impact on SME access to finance. In particular, the sudden drop in revenues created acute liquidity shortages, threatening the survival of many viable businesses. The report documents an increase in demand for bank lending in the first half of 2020, and a steady supply of credit thanks to government interventions. On the other hand, other sources of finance declined, in particular early-stage equity. This paper, a special edition of Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs, focuses on the impacts of COVID-19 on SME access to finance, along with government policy responses. It reveals that the pre-crisis financing environment was broadly favourable for SMEs and entrepreneurs, who benefited from low interest rates, loose credit standards and an increasingly diverse offer of financing instruments. It documents the unprecedented scope and scale of the policy responses undertaken by governments world-wide, and details their key characteristics, and outlines the principal issues and policy challenges for the next phases of the pandemic, such as the over-indebtedness of SMEs and the need to continue to foster a diverse range of financing instruments for SMEs.
  • 16-November-2020

    English

    Global Teaching InSights - A Video Study of Teaching

    What does teaching look like? What practices are most impactful? By directly observing teaching in the classroom, this study trialled new research methods to shed light on these key questions for raising student outcomes around the world. This report provides a detailed account of classroom management, social and emotional support, and instructional practices in the classrooms of eight countries and economies, drawing upon the observation of lesson videos and instructional materials, the analysis of teacher and student questionnaires, and the measurement of students’ cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes.
  • 22-October-2020

    English

    Making Dispute Resolution More Effective - MAP Peer Review Report, Spain (Stage 2) - Inclusive Framework on BEPS: Action 14

    Under Action 14, countries have committed to implement a minimum standard to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of the mutual agreement procedure (MAP). The MAP is included in Article 25 of the OECD Model Tax Convention and commits countries to endeavour to resolve disputes related to the interpretation and application of tax treaties. The Action 14 Minimum Standard has been translated into specific terms of reference and a methodology for the peer review and monitoring process. The peer review process is conducted in two stages. Stage 1 assesses countries against the terms of reference of the minimum standard according to an agreed schedule of review. Stage 2 focuses on monitoring the follow-up of any recommendations resulting from jurisdictions' Stage 1 peer review report. This report reflects the outcome of the Stage 2 peer monitoring of the implementation of the Action 14 Minimum Standard by Spain.
  • 30-July-2020

    English

    Supporting Better Decision-Making in Transport Infrastructure in Spain - Infrastructure Governance Review

    In Spain, as in most countries, the real obstacle to effective and efficient delivery of key infrastructure is not the availability of finance, but rather problems of governance. This review examines the transport infrastructure governance framework in Spain against OECD good practices. It identifies the main governance bottlenecks for the development of transport infrastructure projects and provides a comparison with what other countries have done to alleviate similar bottlenecks. It provides the Spanish authorities with assessments and recommendations to enhance their capacity to formulate, develop and implement policies and strategies that support better decision-making in transport infrastructure. The review is comprised by two complementary sections: an assessment report of the legal framework and the decision-making process of transport infrastructure investments in Spain, and a technical note that provides a benchmarking analysis on practices from selected countries (i.e. Australia, Chile, France, Germany, Italy and United Kingdom), with a specific focus on the railway sector. The benchmark refers to concrete case studies that support the recommendations provided in the assessment report. The report relied on the OECD Recommendation on the Governance of Infrastructure (2020) and the OECD Recommendation on the Principles for Public Governance of Public-Private Partnerships (2012).
  • 7-July-2020

    English, PDF, 718kb

    OECD Employment Outlook 2020 - Key findings for Spain

    In Spain, to protect workers from COVID-19 and help them with family care needs, the authorities promoted a rapid move to telework by expediting programmes to support the digitalisation of small-medium enterprises. In addition, several sectoral agreements were signed to better protect workers in supermarkets, health care, hotels, restaurants and the tourism sector.

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