Since 1970, Thailand’s GDP growth per capita has averaged 4.2% per year in purchasing power parity terms. In 2016, income per head stood at 42% of the OECD average. Nevertheless, faster growth is needed for Thailand to reach its goal of high-income status by 2036. This calls for structural reforms to boost economic potential and inclusiveness, by improving education and skills training in all regions, fostering innovation, facilitating domestic competition, reducing cross-border barriers and accelerating public spending on infrastructure. Overcoming past implementation challenges requires strengthening institutions to ensure the delivery of the critical reforms outlined in the 12th Plan (2017-2021).