Biodiversity, water and natural resource management

Economics and policies for biodiversity


• Biodiversity indicators, valuation and assessment

Biodiversity indicators and valuation enable the quantifiable assessment and comparison of biodiversity in space and time. This is essential for the design and implementation of effective policy. The OECD’s work evaluates best practice in the use of biodiversity indicators for policy, and provides an economic and environmental analysis of biodiversity trends, simulating the costs and benefits of policy actions.


• Economic instruments, incentives and markets

The public good values of biodiversity are often overlooked in private economic decision making. The OECD's biodiversity work on economic instruments, incentives and markets analyses how market failures can be corrected through the use of efficient policy mechanisms to ensure the sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity, ecosystem services and other natural resources.

• Biodiversity finance, development and distributional issues

The conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity requires finance and investment from the public and private sector. Clear objectives, securing long-term funds, with prioritised criteria, and consistent performance evaluation are all features that help to deliver more effective outcomes. The OECD’s work considers how financial flows can be scaled-up, whilst enhancing the cost-effectiveness of existing biodiversity financing. Distributional implications of biodiversity policies are also examined.