With the help of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the world aimed to achieve eight fundamental development objectives by 2015. The goals have been effective in mobilising resources and guiding global development efforts. Overall, there has been considerable progress. Yet progress varied strongly across countries and goals. Many development challenges remain and new challenges have emerged. A successor framework is needed once the MDGs expire in 2015.
As a hub of expertise, experience, and innovative ideas, the OECD wants to support the post-2015 development agenda to the best of its ability. To share its knowledge, the OECD has started work on the paper series 'OECD and Post-2015 Reflections.' The series entails an overview paper and 11 elements, each of which focuses on different areas that are crucial for the success of the post-2015 development agenda.
The following papers have been published so far and are available here:
This overview paper outlines a preliminary proposal for a contribution to the post-2015 era which reflects the OECD mission of supporting governments in designing “better policies for better lives”. The proposal consisting of 11 elements intends to help provide a global, holistic, measurable and meaningful development framework. This proposal is not intended to be an exhaustive list of OECD contributions, but a draft list of ideas for where the OECD could best start to get involved.
Listen to a summary from one of the authors, Hildegard Lingnau.
The global economic and poverty landscape has changed, and with it our understanding of what development and poverty are all about. As the United Nations and its partners shape a new global framework to take the place of the MDGs in 2015, they face the urgent challenge of keeping poverty at the heart of development. For the success of the post-2015 agenda, it is crucial to determine how the multiple dimensions of poverty and inequality should be defined and measured.
The OECD supports the emerging consensus that post-2015 education goals should retain a focus on access and equity while emphasizing the quality of learning from early childhood through primary and secondary education. The OECD is well placed to contribute to the definition of learning goals and targets, based on the experience of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). More than 70 countries participate in PISA and a new initiative will seek to make it more relevant for developing countries. PISA could provide a means for all countries to measure progress towards national and international post-2015 education goals.
Listen to a summary from one of the authors, Michael Ward, a Development Analyst for the OECD.
The post-2015 framework presents a unique opportunity to build on the achievements of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), while also addressing the dimensions that lag behind. It is time to act now – to increase both the political will and the resources to achieve full and lasting gender equality, women’s empowerment and women’s rights. This paper reiterates the call for a post-2015 framework that retains a strong, standalone goal on gender equality and women’s empowerment, and integrates gender-specific targets and indicators in the other goals.
Universal access to sustainable energy is essential to support the post-2015 agenda. Achieving universal energy access is essential to the post-2015 goals framework that will replace the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Access to energy is central to human well-being and a key factor in poverty reduction. Although energy was not explicitly featured in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), there has been a growing recognition that access to sustainable and reliable energy is critical to achieving them: improving women’s and children’s health, broadening the reach of education, allowing households to cook and heat their homes, and enhancing agricultural development and food security. As the United Nations (UN) Secretary-General has said, “Universal energy access is a key priority on the global development agenda. It is a foundation for all the Millennium Development Goals” (UN, 2010).
Listen to a summary from one of the authors, Geraldine Ang.
The post-2015 framework will need to reflect the linkages between poverty reduction, natural resource management and development, as well as local and global environmental challenges. A key element will be to identify and address a common agenda to collectively manage shared global environmental risks and to build resilience across all types of countries to contribute to inclusive and sustainable development, taking into account complex issues such as the interactions between food, water and energy security.
Listen to a summary from one of the authors, Jan Corfee-Morlot.
Listen to another summary from one of the authors, Juan Casado Asensio.
The new development framework that will replace the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) after 2015 will require a “data revolution”. PARIS21 (the Partnership in Statistics for Development in the 21st Century) offers a ready-made structure on which to found such a global partnership and begin co-ordinating a participatory debate on the data and capacity needed worldwide to rise to the challenge of monitoring the post-2015 development framework.
Listen to a summary from one of the authors, Johannes Jütting,Manager of the PARIS21 Secretariat within the OECD's Development Co-operation Directorate.
As we approach the 2015 deadline for the Millennium Development Goals, there are growing calls for the new post-2015 framework to include goals for more effective, open and accountable institutions for all. It is not just politicians and leading experts who are pushing for this change; citizens are also weighing in. In post-2015 consultations, “honest and responsive governments” is one of the most widely-cited priorities of people from around the world. This Post-2015 Reflections Paper outlines the importance of effective institutions for sustainable development and examines what steps are being taken to achieve the change required.
With the OECD Strategy on Development, the organisation and its members have taken an important step forward on how to approach policy coherence for development in a rapidly changing and more complex global context. The OECD can make full use of its multidisciplinary expertise, evidence-based approaches to policy making, and peer learning working methods. This will contribute to better informed policies and provide decision makers with the necessary tools and instruments for achieving greater policy coherence for development in the post-2015 development agenda and framework.
Listen to a summary from one of the authors, Ernesto Soria Morales.
Economic powers are shifting, while at the same time social inequality threatens to destabilise the political and economic outlook for many societies. Many pressing concerns – climate change, health, peace and stability – are universal, and can only be tackled by cross-border collaboration and sharing mechanisms. Knowledge sharing for the post-2015 framework needs to include concrete elements beyond datasets – chiefly, new substance, new processes and new partnerships – to provide countries of all types with the know-how needed to face global challenges and opportunities today.
The widely-endorsed Busan Partnership agreement (2011) offers helpful principles that could underpin the “how” of a post-2015 development framework. The Global Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation provides a broad political coalition of stakeholders to advocate for effective development partnerships, and drive progress in developing countries where it matters the most. The OECD is committed to supporting the Global Partnership. In addition to its role in monitoring progress, the OECD is well placed to share its tools and knowledge in other areas of relevance to the Partnership – for example, work on tax and development, effective institutions, and tackling illicit financial flows.
Listen to a summary from one of the authors, Robin Ogilvy.
As the international community develops a new framework to replace the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) after 2015, a funding strategy will need to be put in place to support them. This will require a sustained global effort that maximises both public and private sources of finance. The DAC is already working to modernise its statistical system for monitoring and measuring external development finance and is working with the United Nations and the wider international community so that the revised system is well placed to support the attainment of post-2015 goals.
Listen to a summary from one of the authors, Jean Touchette.
Strengthening domestic tax collection will be essential to provide governments with sustainable revenue sources to finance the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals. The OECD stands ready to support developing countries to ensure they share in the benefits of major international initiatives like the Action Plan on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting to address profit shifting by multinational enterprises or the new single global standard for Automatic Exchange of Information to curb tax evasion and illicit financial flows. With only an estimated 0.1% of total ODA dedicated to tax matters, the international development community could do more to strengthen tax systems in developing countries.
The OECD vision: Tools and outcomes for the post-2015 framework
In shaping the post-2015 era, the OECD initially proposes 11 elements organised into two categories: A) outcomes, including principles and underlying future goals; and B) tools for achieving existing and developing future goals (see below).
The OECD welcomes the Panel’s call to lift all people out of absolute poverty. At the same time, it underlines the need to focus more attention on issues of inequality and inclusiveness. Any new global framework must aim at ensuring that globalization becomes a positive force for all.
In line with the HLP ‘s call for new and innovative approaches to financing global goals, the OECD-DAC is working to establish a comprehensive approach for monitoring and measuring development finance.
We also welcome the HLP’s two-level approach which proposes universal goals coupled with national targets. The OECD-DAC has been advocating for country leadership for many years and will continue to support the Global Partnership for Effective Development in ensuring inclusiveness and effectiveness in development cooperation.
With its 34 member countries and its long-standing expertise in setting and monitoring standards, the OECD stands ready to support this UN-led process towards equality, inclusiveness and sustainability.