• 22-March-2024


    Nature-based solutions for flood management in Asia and the Pacific

    Countries in Asia and the Pacific face a heightened risk of flooding as disasters increase worldwide due to climate change. Yet these countries often lack the infrastructure necessary to prepare for and respond to floods effectively. When flood protection measures exist, they generally rely only on grey, hard-engineered infrastructure, which has been increasingly challenged in recent years. Nature-based solutions (NbS) offer a new approach for flood management, with several co-benefits beyond the reduction of risks. This approach has gained recognition from policy makers in the region, but they are confronted with a number of challenges, including the lack of a clear, common definition and guidelines, as well as financing issues. The growing imperatives of climate adaptation call for complementary, innovative and forward-looking solutions, such as a combined approach incorporating both NbS and grey infrastructure.
  • 4-December-2023


    Multi-level governance and subnational finance in Asia and the Pacific

    Subnational governments in Asia and the Pacific are key providers of the public services and infrastructure required to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. Given this role, it is essential that policymakers and development partners understand and support the effective functioning of multi-level governance structures and subnational government finances across the region. This joint OECD-ADB report provides a comprehensive overview of subnational governments across Asia and the Pacific. It covers over 467,000 subnational governments from 26 countries, which represent 53% of the world’s population and 40% of global GDP. On average in 2020, subnational governments in the region accounted for 29% of total public expenditure (8.8% of GDP), 35% of total public revenue (8.5% of GDP) and 38% of public investment (2% of GDP). Harnessing unique data from the 3rd edition of the OECD-UCLG World Observatory on Subnational Government Finance and Investment, the analysis highlights how decentralisation and territorial reforms have reconfigured the structures and finances of subnational governments in the region. It covers a range of topics including fiscal rules, financial management capacity, priority-based budgeting, asset management and the use of public-private partnerships.
  • 3-October-2023


    Work country programmes and National Policy Dialogues on water in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia

    The regional component of the EU Water Initiative (EUWI) focuses on Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA). It supports work of the European Neighbourhood Policy and of the EU-Central Asia Platform for Environment and Water Cooperation, and helps to promote the progressive approximation to EU water policies, particularly to the EU Water Framework Directive, in EECCA countries.

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  • 26-April-2023


    Aid at a glance charts

    These ready-made tables and charts provide for snapshot of aid (Official Development Assistance) for all DAC Members as well as recipient countries and territories. Summary reports by regions (Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania) and the world are also available.

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  • 9-December-2022


    Enhancing Investment Promotion in Tajikistan

    Tajikistan has identified Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) attraction as a critical component of its national development strategy, which could contribute to the achievement of several policy goals, including private sector growth, job creation, and economic diversification. As the COVID-19 pandemic has increased competition for FDI, the role of investment promotion agencies (IPAs) is growing around the world. Investment promotion and facilitation work carried out by a dedicated investment promotion agency can help attract FDI, when underpinned by measures to improve the overall investment framework.
  • 4-October-2022


    Tajikistan 2022 Energy Sector Review

    This International Energy Agency (IEA) energy sector review of Tajikistan was conducted under the auspices of the EU4Energy programme, which is being implemented by the IEA and the European Union, along with the Energy Community Secretariat and the Energy Charter Secretariat. With abundant water potential from its rivers, natural lakes and glaciers, Tajikistan is almost exclusively reliant on hydro for electricity generation. It is home to some of the world’s largest hydropower plants and is ranked eighth in the world for hydropower potential with an estimated 527 terawatt-hours (TWh). Currently only 4% of the country’s hydro potential is exploited. Tajikistan’s geographic proximity to some of the world’s fastest-growing energy markets means that investing in developing its hydropower potential can contribute to regional energy security and the clean energy transition, in addition to addressing Tajikistan’s high vulnerability to climate change and natural disasters. Coupled with the IEA roadmap on cross-border electricity trading for Tajikistan, published in October 2021, this report aims to give a holistic overview of Tajikistan’s energy sector and to assist policy making at all levels in order to facilitate the effective delivery of the National Development Strategy for 2030 and its ambitious goals, which include increasing hydropower generation capacity by 10 gigawatts and raising annual electricity exports by 10 TWh. It also supports government efforts for ongoing energy sector reforms, aimed at restructuring the state-owned vertically integrated electric utility with financial viability issues, introducing market mechanisms to alleviate power sector challenges and updating its regulatory and tariff regimes. The report commends the government of Tajikistan for setting clear goals for its national development strategy and the subsequent sectoral development programmes, caveats the introduction of domestic coal as a key support for national energy security structures, and advocates for the introduction of other renewable sources and enhanced regional co operation for achieving energy security and sustainable development goals.
  • 3-October-2022


    Green Economy Transition in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia - Progress and Ways Forward

    Since the 1990’s, the countries of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) have made great progress in pursuing economic development that is also environmentally sustainable. The countries, in collaboration with the GREEN Action Task Force hosted by the OECD, has developed a number of policies aiming to improve environmental quality and social well-being, while creating opportunities for strong economic growth and decent jobs in the region. This report was prepared as the OECD contribution to the ninth 'Environment for Europe' (EfE) Conference (5-7 October 2022). In this context, this report aims to: (i) take stock of progress on policy developments towards a green economy in the EECCA countries; (ii) showcase selected contributions from of the Green Action Task Force that integrate environmental and climate considerations into development pathways of the EECCA countries, and mobilise finance for action; and (iii) provide an outlook for the future, including priority actions that the Task Force in co-operation with the EECCA countries should take to enhance the momentum for green economy transition in the region.
  • 16-November-2021


    Cross-Border Electricity Trading for Tajikistan - A Roadmap

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) completed this report, Cross-Border Electricity Trading for Tajikistan, as part of the EU4Energy programme, a five-year initiative funded by the European Union. The programme aims to support the development of evidence-based energy policy design and data capabilities within the countries of the Eastern Partnership and Central Asia. The central purpose of this report is to guide policy making at all levels to facilitate effective cross-border integration of electricity markets to the benefit of Tajikistan as well as the region. This report can serve as a roadmap to support the Tajikistan’s National Development Strategy for 2030, which includes goals to export at least 10 TWh of its hydropower generation and to undertake reforms to improve the performance and sustainability of its power sector. Cross-border electricity trading can bring many benefits in terms of optimising resource allocation among the countries involved. The availability of generation technologies, geography, socio-economic factors, and political agreements will determine the potential for cross-border electricity trading that countries could develop and subsequently the benefits that could be achieved. Therefore, the focus of this roadmap is to assess the feasibility and extent of electricity trade with Tajikistan’s neighbours and to lay out policy requirements for implementation. As the focus here is Tajikistan, the recommendations are based on the Tajik context.
  • 17-February-2021


    COVID-19 and greening the economies of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia

    This policy paper analyses measures related to COVID-19 in 11 EECCA countries based on their potential to advance the transition to a greener, climate-resilient and low-carbon economy. Recommendations suggest ways to ensure that governments align efforts to support economic recovery with their objectives on climate change, biodiversity and wider environmental protection.

  • 19-December-2019


    Sustainable Infrastructure for Low-Carbon Development in Central Asia and the Caucasus - Hotspot Analysis and Needs Assessment

    This report analyses planned infrastructure projects, decision-making frameworks related to infrastructure development and strategic planning documents in eight countries in Central Asia and the Caucasus: Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. It compares current investment flows with countries' national development objectives to identify misalignments and provides policy-makers with recommendations to improve the integration of climate change and other environmental concerns into infrastucture development decision-making processes. The report presents a comprehensive overview of infrastructure investment, primarily in the transport and energy sectors, throughout the region and identifies the risks and opportunities emerging from current investment patterns.
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