Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on Australia is the ninth and last in a series of reports looking at how the broader education, health, social and labour market policy challenges identified in Sick on the Job? Myths and Realities about Mental Health and Work (OECD, 2012) are being tackled in a number of OECD countries. It concludes that policy thinking in Australia shows well-advanced awareness both of the costs of mental illness for society as a whole and of the health benefits of employment. However, challenges remain in: making employment issues a concern of the health care services; helping young people succees in their future working lives; making the workplace a safe, supportive psychosocial environment; and better designing and targeting employment services for jobseekers with mental ill-health.
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The tax burden in Australia increased by 0.2 percentage points from 27.3% to 27.5% in 2013¹. The corresponding figures for the OECD average were an increase of 0.4 percentage points from 33.8% to 34.2%
The 2015 edition introduces more detailed analysis of participation in early childhood and tertiary levels of education. The report also examines first generation tertiary-educated adults’ educational and social mobility, labour market outcomes for recent graduates, and participation in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education.
Australia’s health system functions remarkably well, despite operating under a complex set of institutions that make coordinating patient care difficult. Complications arising from a split in federal and state government funding and responsibilities are central to these challenges. This fragmented health care system can disrupt the continuity of patient care, lead to a duplication of services and leave gaps in care provision. Supervision of these health services by different levels of government can manifest in avoidable impediments such as the poor transfer of health information, and pose difficulties for patients navigating the health system. Adding to the Australian system’s complexity is a mix of services delivered through both the public and private sectors. To ease health system fragmentation and promote more integrated services, Australia should adopt a national approach to quality and performance through an enhanced federal government role in steering policy, funding and priority setting. The states, in turn, should take on a strengthened role as health service providers, with responsibility for primary care devolved to the states to better align it with hospital services and community care. A more strategic role for the centre should also leave room for the strategic development of health services at the regional level, encouraging innovation that is responsive to local population need, particularly in rural and remote areas.
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Australia performs well in terms of overall population health status. At 82.2 years, life expectancy is the sixth highest in the OECD, and the country’s record on breast and colorectal cancer survival is among the best. Australia has one of the lowest rates of tobacco consumption (12.8% of the population aged 15 and over), but it is the fifth most obese country in the OECD (28.3% of the population aged 15 and over).
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This note presents selected findings based on the set of well-being indicators published in How's Life? 2015.
L’édition 2014 des Comptes nationaux des pays de l’OCDE : Volume IV, Comptes des administrations publiques est une publication annuelle de l’OCDE, consacrée aux finances publiques et basée sur le Système de Comptabilité Nationale 2008 (SCN 2008) pour tous les pays sauf le Chili, la Corée, le Japon, et la Turquie (SCN 1993). La publication comprend des tableaux avec les agrégats et les soldes des administrations publiques pour les comptes de production, de revenu et les comptes financiers. Elle comprend également les recettes détaillées d’impôts et de cotisations sociales ainsi que la ventilation des dépenses des administrations publiques par fonction, selon la classification harmonisée au niveau international CFAP. Ces comptes détaillés sont disponibles pour le secteur des administrations publiques avec, dans la mesure du possible, le détail par sous-secteur : administration centrale,
Cette publication est également disponible sous forme de base de données en ligne qui permet aux utilisateurs d’extraire des données et de construire des tableaux et graphiques. Elle est disponible via www.oecd-ilibrary.org sous le titre Statistiques de l'OCDE sur les comptes nationaux, Comptes des administrations publiques (http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/na-gga-data-fr).
Australia’s agriculture and food industries are well placed to contribute to the economy’s future growth given the robust prospects of global food demand and the continuing high international competitiveness of these sectors. There are, however, important challenges that call for new ways to exploit agricultural resources and human capital. The decade-long decline in agricultural productivity growth needs to be overcome, coupled with the need to accommodate uncertainties about the impacts of climate change and to respond to societal demands in the areas of sustainable development and animal welfare. The agro-food sector also needs to absorb exchange-rate and cost pressures created by the mining boom. To tap additional opportunities of the higher value food segments, Australian agri-businesses need new knowledge and capabilities to seize demand signals and value opportunities, particularly from more affluent consumers in Asian markets.
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Australia’s employment rate remains well above the OECD average. In the first quarter of 2015, the rate for 15-64 year-olds was 71.7%, 5.7 percentage points (ppts) above the OECD average. However, labour market conditions have been deteriorating steadily over the past four years, and Australia is no longer one of the best performing countries in the OECD area.