The Kazakh authorities have embarked upon an ambitious reform programme to improve the country’s framework for investment and strengthen the country as an attractive investment destination. This review, which was prepared in close cooperation with the Kazakh authorities in response to their 2012 request to adhere to the Declaration on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises (OECD Declaration), analyses the general investment framework as well as recent reform, and shows where further efforts are necessary. It assesses Kazakhstan’s ability to comply with the principles of openness, transparency and non-discrimination and its policy convergence with international responsible business conduct standards. Capitalising on the OECD’s multidisciplinary nature, this review also studies other areas such as the policy framework for the balancing of investor protection and the government's right to regulate, investment promotion and facilitation, SMEs policy, infrastructure development, trade policy and anti-corruption efforts. Since the first review ok Kazakhstan, in 2011, the authorities have made strides in opening the country to international investment and in improving the policy framework for investment. But additional efforts are required in some policy areas to strengthen Kazakhstan’s attractiveness for investors.
Kazakhstan has embarked upon an ambitious reform agenda to realise its aspiration of becoming one of the top 30 global economies by 2050. The country’s economy and society have undergone deep transformations since independence. To sustain economic progress, overcome recent difficulties, and drive improvements in well-being to realise its aspirations, Kazakhstan will need to address a number of challenges to ensure its economy becomes more productive and diverse, and is sufficiently flexible and resilient in the face of an ever-shifting external environment. This next stage of economic transformation will require continuing reforms. This report discusses policy actions to address four key obstacles to development in Kazakhstan, identified in Volume 1 of this review. It presents in-depth analysis and recommendations to improve the economy’s resilience through diversification, to mobilise financing for development, to transform the role of the state in the economy, including through privatisation, and to improve the effectiveness of environmental regulations.
This report provides an independent and comparative assessment of the overall performance of Kazakhstan’s innovation system since independence, with recommendations on improving performance drawing on the experience of other OECD countries in innovation processes, systems and policies. While many key components of the research and innovation system have been implemented (legal infrastructure, policy implementation instruments, and new research institutions), spurring a full-blown innovation-based development in Kazakhstan means extending innovation across the system as a whole, connecting higher education institutions with research institutes, igniting “technology pull” from businesses (and modernising these), and linking up commercialisation processes between universities and firms. Policy implementation will also require independent external monitoring and evaluation, and better co-ordination and co-operation between different policy actors.
The OECD supports countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) to reconcile their environment and economic goals thus addressing the heavy environmental legacy of the Soviet model of development. This support is provided within the framework of the GReen Economy and ENvironment Action Programme (the GREEN Action Ptogramme).
Higher education policy is the key to lifelong learning and this is particularly important as the ageing population is increasing in many countries. It is a major driver of economic competitiveness in an increasingly knowledge-driven global economy and it also brings social cohesion and well-being. Countries are increasingly aware that higher education institutions need to foster the skills required to sustain a globally competitive research base and improve knowledge dissemination to the benefit of society. Kazakhstan’s higher education system has made progress over the past ten years. However, there is scope for improvement in delivering labour-market relevant skills to Kazakhstanis, and in supporting economic growth through research and innovation.
In examining the higher education system in Kazakhstan, this report builds on a 2007 joint OECD/World Bank review: Reviews of National Policies for Education: Higher Education in Kazakhstan 2007. Each chapter presents an overview of progress made in the past decade across the main areas explored in the 2007 report. These include quality and relevance, access and equity, internationalisation, research and innovation, financing and governance. The report also examines policy responses to evolving dynamics in higher education and the wider socio-economic changes.
Urbanisation is an important condition for economic development, but must be managed effectively if cities are to realise their potential as engines of national growth. This report provides a comprehensive assessment of Kazakhstan’s urban policies in terms of economic, social and environmental impact. It analyses how national spatial planning for urban regions, along with specific sectoral policies, affect urban development directly and indirectly. It also looks at specific issues such as housing, public utilities, urban transport, and migration. The review assesses the efficiency and effectiveness of current urban governance arrangements, and makes recommendations for steps Kazakhstan can take to develop an attractive and well-managed system of large and medium-sized cities that can help it achieve its development objectives.
There are now 45 Adherents to the 2009 OECD Declaration on Green Growth. Georgia has joined Costa Rica, Colombia, Croatia, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Morocco, Peru, Tunisia, as well as OECD members in having adhered to the Declaration.
À la suite de la réunion inaugurale du Cadre inclusif sur le BEPS au Japon, du 30 juin au 1 juillet, et ses réunions régionales, plusieurs pays et territoires rejoignent le Cadre. Le Kazakhstan, la Côte d’Ivoire et les Bermudes ont formellement adhéré au nouveau Cadre inclusif, ce qui porte à 94 le nombre total de pays et de juridictions qui y participent sur un pied d'égalité.
These ready-made tables and charts provide for snapshot of aid (Official Development Assistance) for all DAC Members as well as recipient countries and territories. Summary reports by regions (Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania) and the world are also available.
The next OECD Eurasia Week took place on 22-24 November 2016 in Paris, France. This event creates an opportunity to further strengthen relations between the countries of the region and the OECD. It serves as a platform for a discussion on a broad spectrum of thematic issues relevant to further improving the region’s competitiveness.