Urbanisation is an important condition for economic development, but must be managed effectively if cities are to realise their potential as engines of national growth. This report provides a comprehensive assessment of Kazakhstan’s urban policies in terms of economic, social and environmental impact. It analyses how national spatial planning for urban regions, along with specific sectoral policies, affect urban development directly and indirectly. It also looks at specific issues such as housing, public utilities, urban transport, and migration. The review assesses the efficiency and effectiveness of current urban governance arrangements, and makes recommendations for steps Kazakhstan can take to develop an attractive and well-managed system of large and medium-sized cities that can help it achieve its development objectives.
These ready-made tables and charts provide for snapshot of aid (Official Development Assistance) for all DAC Members as well as recipient countries and territories. Summary reports by regions (Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania) and the world are also available.
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Well-designed policies could help address the outstanding issues in the ECEC profession and work environment in Kazakhstan. Some potential options for Kazakhstan are suggested in this report, based on its findings and the background report prepared by Kazakhstan and supplemented by a survey of policy options and country experiences.
Higher education policy is the key to lifelong learning and this is particularly important as the ageing population is increasing in many countries. It is a major driver of economic competitiveness in an increasingly knowledge-driven global economy and it also brings social cohesion and well-being. Countries are increasingly aware that higher education institutions need to foster the skills required to sustain a globally competitive research base and improve knowledge dissemination to the benefit of society. Kazakhstan’s higher education system has made progress over the past ten years. However, there is scope for improvement in delivering labour-market relevant skills to Kazakhstanis, and in supporting economic growth through research and innovation.
In examining the higher education system in Kazakhstan, this report builds on a 2007 joint OECD/World Bank review: Reviews of National Policies for Education: Higher Education in Kazakhstan 2007. Each chapter presents an overview of progress made in the past decade across the main areas explored in the 2007 report. These include quality and relevance, access and equity, internationalisation, research and innovation, financing and governance. The report also examines policy responses to evolving dynamics in higher education and the wider socio-economic changes.
Following the first meeting of the Inclusive Framework on BEPS in Japan, on 30 June-1 July, and recent regional meetings, more countries and jurisdictions are joining the framework. The Inclusive Framework on BEPS welcomed Kazakhstan, Côte d’Ivoire and Bermuda bringing to 94 the total number of countries and jurisdictions participating on an equal footing in the project.
Oil exports play a major role in the economic development of Kazakhstan, the largest petroleum producer in Central Asia. But the country’s vast plains also hold significant renewable energy potential that remains largely untouched, particularly solar and wind power. This major potential could help the country reach its ambitious goals of diversifying most of its electricity generation away from coal use while cutting harmful greenhouse gas emissions. Improving the country’s ageing Soviet-era infrastructure also holds significant promise for advancing energy efficiency.
The International Energy Agency selected Kazakhstan as a key player in regional efforts to deploy low carbon technologies in Central Asia for a pilot study developed with the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development. This Clean Energy Technology Assessment Methodology programme aims to provide clear and transparent information about renewable energy and energy efficiency technology markets, with the goal of identifying the most promising technologies for policy support and investment and establishing metrics for tracking their deployment over time.
This report assesses a range of technological options in Kazakhstan on both the demand and supply side to determine which show the most potential for further development, in line with the country’s policy goals and resource endowment. Appropriate policies and measures that support effective renewables deployment and grid integration would help Kazakhstan reach its diversification targets sooner. Phasing-out of energy subsidies and developing in-depth monitoring indicators would allow the country to better track the implementation of planned energy efficiency measures and optimise its energy savings potential.
National intellectual property (IP) systems can play a pivotal role in fostering innovation and knowledge diffusion. This report analyses Kazakhstan’s IP system with regards to its support of the country’s innovation performance. In particular, it assesses the organisation and governance of Kazakhstan's IP system as well as the needs and challenges faced by different groups of actual and potential IP users – ranging from universities and public research institutions to state-owned enterprises and small businesses. The review provides a comprehensive set of statistics describing the use of IP in Kazakhstan in recent years, identifies the system’s strengths and weaknesses, and presents a range of specific policy recommendations to address existing challenges.
Data on government support to agriculture in the OECD area and other major economies, measured by the Producer Support Estimate (PSE) and Consumer Support Estimate.
This report assesses the Republic of Kazakhstan’s significant efforts to improve water supply and sanitation (WSS) services over the past 15 years, notably in terms of ambitious target-setting, implementation of a sound water tariff policy, and significant investment in the rehabilitation and development of relevant infrastructure. Generally speaking, the absence of updated data on WSS institutional development is a limiting factor for further policy and programme development in the field, including in Kazakhstan. The monitoring and evaluation system proposed in this report aims to help assess progress in the WSS sector and serve as a basis for any necessary corrective measures.
There are now 44 adherents to the OECD Declaration on Green Growth. Kazakhstan has joined Costa Rica, Colombia, Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Morocco, Peru, Tunisia, as well as OECD members in having adhered to the declaration. Latest reports are now available on Brazil, Zambia, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Korea and Latvia.