The COVID-19 pandemic has severely disrupted construction, made it difficult for many households to pay for shelter, and seriously hurt the housing sector. Governments have responded with a wide array of measures to protect tenants and mortgage-holders, as well as support builders and lenders. This note mobilises web-search data to shed new light on the impact of the crisis on the construction sector.
In a context marked by rapid urbanisation, growing housing demand and the worsening impacts of climate change, national governments play a vital role in delivering environmentally sustainable cities with adequate and affordable housing. This paper reviews national housing policy instruments from around the world, analysing their impacts on compact urban development and housing affordability.
This chapter examines how the living standards of the middle class have evolved over recent decades. It also assesses the contribution of middle-income households to aggregate consumption in the economy, in comparison to its shares of total population and income and those of the lower- and upper- income classes.