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Publications & Documents


  • 10-December-2021

    English

    OECD Reviews of Innovation Policy: Kuwait 2021

    The slowdown in market demand for oil is putting increasing pressure on Kuwait's current economic and social model. This model is based on the distribution of petroleum export proceeds to Kuwaiti citizens, with relatively limited long-term investment in knowledge production and the upgrading of the national innovation capacity. The transition towards a knowledge-based society – where value creation, the resolution of societal challenges and the well-being of society at large will be based on the production, diffusion and implementation of knowledge – is becoming an imperative. This is recognised within the national development strategy which formulates the objective of attaining 'Smart Kuwait' by 2035. Such a transition is challenging and can only be achieved through the build-up of appropriate governance of the STI system with adequate institutions such as a Ministry and a professional agency with a mandate for research and innovation. This set-up should help raise awareness and reduce barriers to innovation, reinforce the scientific research base, develop the support for business innovation, foster knowledge diffusion and co‑creation between science and industry, build up the human capital needed, and establish the role of science, technology and innovation in tackling Kuwait's societal challenges.
  • 9-December-2021

    English

    Measuring Tax Support for R&D and Innovation

    Governments worldwide increasingly rely on tax incentives in addition to direct support measures (e.g. grants) to promote R&D in firms and encourage innovation and economic growth. The OECD has developed experimental methodologies and a detailed database on R&D tax incentives with the latest indicators on the cost and information on the design and scope of R&D tax incentives.

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  • 9-December-2021

    English

    The Role of Firms in Wage Inequality - Policy Lessons from a Large Scale Cross-Country Study

    Even though firms play a key role in shaping wages, wage inequality and the gender wage gap, firms have so far only featured to a limited extent in the policy debates around these issues. The evidence in this volume shows that around one third of overall wage inequality can be explained by gaps in pay between firms rather than differences in the level and returns to workers’ skills. Gaps in firm pay reflect differences in productivity and wage setting power. To address high wage inequality while fostering high and sustainable growth, worker-centred policies (e.g. education, adult learning) need to be complemented with firm-oriented policies. This involves notably: (1) policies that promote the productivity catch-up of lagging firms, which would not only raise aggregate productivity and wages but also reduce wage inequality; (2) policies that reduce wage gaps at given productivity gaps without limiting efficiency-enhancing reallocation, especially the promotion of worker mobility; and (3) policies that reduce the wage setting power of firms with dominant positions in local labour markets, which would raise wages and reduce wage inequality without adverse effects on employment and output.
  • 8-December-2021

    English

    Internet policy and governance

    The OECD contributes to several critical public policy areas related to Internet governance and is involved each year in the Internet Governance Forum.

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  • 7-December-2021

    English

    Data governance: Enhancing access to and sharing of data

    The OECD Recommendation on Enhancing Access to and Sharing of Data is the first internationally agreed upon set of principles and policy guidance on how governments can maximise the cross-sectoral benefits of all types of data – personal, non-personal, open, proprietary, public and private – while protecting the rights of individuals and organisations.

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  • 6-December-2021

    English

    Technology in and for society: Innovating well for inclusive transitions

    This conference on 6-7 December seeks to develop a policy agenda to pair the transformative potential of emerging technology with the necessity of good governance: how we can innovate more and innovate better, i.e. within inclusive processes with values at the centre and lasting positive impact.

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  • 6-December-2021

    English

    The human side of productivity - Uncovering the role of skills and diversity for firm productivity

    Relying on linked employer-employee datasets from 10 countries, this paper documents that the skills and the diversity of the workforce and of managers – the human side of businesses – account on average for about one third of the labour productivity gap between firms at the productivity 'frontier' (the top 10% within each detailed industry) and medium performers at the 40-60 percentile of the productivity distribution. The composition of skills, especially the share of high skills, varies the most along the productivity distribution, but low and medium skilled employees make up a substantial share of the workforce even at the frontier. High skills show positive but decreasing productivity returns. Moreover, the skill mix of top firms varies markedly across countries, pointing to the role of different strategies pursued by firms in different policy environments. We also find that managerial skills play a particularly important role, also through complementarities with worker skills. Gender and cultural diversity among managers – and to a lesser extent, among workers – is positively related to firm productivity as well. We discuss public policies that can facilitate the catch-up of firms below the frontier through skills and diversity. These cover a wide range of areas, exerting their influence through three main channels: the supply, upgrading and the matching across firms (the SUM) of skills and other human factors.
  • 23-November-2021

    English, PDF, 11,553kb

    World corporate top R&D investors: Paving the way for climate neutrality

    This report focuses on the role that top R&D investors play in the development and commercialisation of new climate change mitigation or adaptation technologies. It proposes for the first time an analysis of climate-related trademarks, which complement patent data on climate-related technologies.

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  • 23-November-2021

    English

    Intellectual property (IP) statistics and analysis

    The context in which intellectual property currently operates is very different from the one in which IP rights were conceived. IP systems are undergoing continuous changes as they seek to optimise the balance between private and social benefits to contribute to economic growth and the welfare of societies.

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  • 19-November-2021

    English

    OECD Short-term Financial Tracker of Business R&D (SwiFTBeRD) dashboard

    The OECD SwiFTBeRD dashboard allows to visualise quarterly, semi-annually and annually reported R&D data for the world's top R&D investors, providing company-specific and sectoral insights.

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