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Publications & Documents


  • 14-December-2022

    English

    Going Digital to Advance Data Governance for Growth and Well-being

    Data are generated wherever digital technologies are deployed namely, in almost every part of modern life. Using these data can empower individuals, drive innovation, enable new digital products and improve policy making and public service delivery. But as data become more widely used across sectors and applications, the potential for misuse and harm also grows. To advance data governance for growth and well-being, this report advocates a holistic and coherent approach to data governance, domestically and across borders. It examines how data have emerged as a strategic asset, with the ability to transform lives and confer economic advantage. It explains how the unique characteristics of data can pose complex trade-offs and challenge policies that pre-date the data-driven era. This report provides new insights, evidence and analysis and outlines considerations for better data governance policies in the digital age.
  • 14-December-2022

    English

    Going Digital Guide to Data Governance Policy Making

    The ubiquitous collection, use, and sharing of data that power today’s economies challenge existing governance frameworks and policy approaches. Drawing on the extensive research and analysis conducted at the OECD on data governance, on countries’ policies and practices, and the OECD legal instruments in this area, the Going Digital Guide to Data Governance Policy Making supports policy makers in navigating three fundamental policy tensions that characterise efforts to develop, revise, and implement policies for data governance across policy domains in the digital age: balancing data openness and control while maximising trust; managing overlapping and potentially conflicting interests and regulations related to data; incentivising investments in data and their effective re-use. The operative part of the guide consists of a checklist of questions to orient policy makers as they develop and revise effective policies for data governance, based on possible policy approaches and real-life examples.
  • 14-December-2022

    English

    Data in an evolving technological landscape - The case of connected and automated vehicles

    Digital technologies underpin the creation, generation, collection, transfer and use of data, and digital technological development and deployment shape data governance policy debates. This report analyses how technological development can raise different issues for data governance through the example of connected and automated vehicles, which collect large volumes of data that are likely to be personal. Through the example of these vehicles, this report explores data governance in an evolving technological landscape, and offers recommendations to ensure policies remain resilient to technological change over time.
  • 14-December-2022

    English

    Measuring the value of data and data flows

    Data have become a key input into the production of many goods and services. But just how important? What is the value of data – their contribution to economic growth and well-being? This report discusses different approaches to data valuation, their advantages and shortcomings and their applicability in different contexts. It argues that the value of data depends to a large extent on the data governance framework determining how they can be created, shared and used. In addition, the report provides estimates of the value of data and data flows. Its focus is on the monetary valuation of data produced by private economic actors and their recording in economic statistics. Finally, the report puts forward a draft measurement agenda for the future.
  • 14-December-2022

    English

    Data shaping firms and markets

    Firms are at the forefront of digital transformation and drive production, innovation and the greater deployment of digital technologies into economies and societies. As digital transformation progresses, how firms use data, and how that use affects markets and influences competitive dynamics, has risen to the top of policy agendas. This report highlights that too few firms use data, particularly small and medium-sized enterprises, despite data’s potential to boost productivity, foster innovation and new business models. This report analyses how this uneven use of data affects productivity dispersion, industry concentration and shape competitive dynamics in markets. Finally, the report outlines key policy lessons to increase the ability of the full business population to thrive in the data-driven age and enhance long-term prosperity and welfare.
  • 14-December-2022

    English

    Fostering cross-border data flows with trust

    Data flows are critical for our global economic and social interactions, but trust is necessary to facilitate data sharing, especially across borders. The challenge is to foster a global digital environment that enables the movement of data across international borders while ensuring that, upon crossing a border, data are granted the desired oversight and protection – a concept known as ‘data free flow with trust’ (DFFT). This report summarises how different countries and stakeholders are pursuing cross-border data flows with trust through direct and indirect approaches, across different levels, fora and policy communities. It then looks at related issues to promoting DFFT namely: interoperability of privacy and data protection frameworks; government access to personal data held by the private sector; and data localisation measures. The report shows that, although differences remain, there are commonalities, complementarities and elements of convergence that can help to build trust, foster future interoperability, and advance DFFT.
  • 14-December-2022

    English

    Responding to societal challenges with data - Access, sharing, stewardship and control

    Data access, sharing and re-use ('data openness') can generate significant social and economic benefits, including addressing public health emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. However, data openness also comes with risks to individuals and organisations – notably risks to privacy and data protection, intellectual property rights, digital and national security. It also raises ethical concerns where data access, sharing and re-use undermine ethical values and norms. This report demonstrates how approaches to data stewardship and control that are more balanced and differentiated can maximise the benefits of data, while protecting individuals’ and organisations’ rights and taking into account other legitimate interests and public policy objectives. It presents the mix of technical, organisational and legal approaches that characterises these more balanced and differentiated approaches, and how governments have implemented them.
  • 16-November-2022

    English

    OECD news on innovation, science, technology and industry

    This newsletter delivers the latest reports, statistics and policy recommendations from the OECD Directorate for Science, Technology and Innovation.

    Related Documents
  • 15-November-2022

    English

    Measuring the environmental impacts of artificial intelligence compute and applications - The AI footprint

    Artificial intelligence (AI) systems can use massive computational resources, raising sustainability concerns. This report aims to improve understanding of the environmental impacts of AI, and help measure and decrease AI’s negative effects while enabling it to accelerate action for the good of the planet. It distinguishes between the direct environmental impacts of developing, using and disposing of AI systems and related equipment, and the indirect costs and benefits of using AI applications. It recommends the establishment of measurement standards, expanding data collection, identifying AI-specific impacts, looking beyond operational energy use and emissions, and improving transparency and equity to help policy makers make AI part of the solution to sustainability challenges.
  • 15-November-2022

    English

    Building better societies through digital policy - Background paper for the CDEP Ministerial meeting

    Building more equitable, connected, cohesive and sustainable societies is at the top of policy agendas, but several challenges stand in the way of achieving this goal. The report focuses on three key challenges policy makers face in the pursuit of better societies: bridging digital divides, combatting harmful content online, and effectively harnessing digital technologies to fight climate change and other environmental problems. This report provides insights into key trends across OECD countries and partner economies, and offers policy actions that can help decision makers tackle these three critical challenges, together with better measurement. The report builds on previous work on the topic and seeks to inform further debate and discussion on how to ensure that today’s divides, biases and inequalities are not perpetuated into the future.
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