Directorate for Science, Technology and Innovation

OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook


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New edition released 12 November 2014


OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook 2012
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September 2012 (online)
October 2012 (print)

The STI Outlook reviews the key policy trends and performance of OECD countries and major emerging economies in a number of areas related to science and innovation based on the latest information and indicators. The policy and country profiles in the 2012 edition highlight the expected contributions of science, technology and innovation to a sustainable and lasting recovery from the economic crisis.  

Publication of the STI Outlook alternates every year with the OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard, which provides a comprehensive picture of countries' performance in science, technology and innovation.


Part I. Innovation and the macroeconomic environment

Chapter 1. Innovation in the crisis and beyond (download)

  • Key messages | Policy lessons | Introduction
  • The crises and their impact on innovation
  • The impact on different factors relevant for innovation
  • Innovation policy responses to the global financial and public debt crises
  • Impacts on future innovation performance: Looking ahead
  • Annex: The economic crisis and STI policy – National policy examples

Part II. Innovating for global and societal challenges

Chapter 2. Transitioning to green innovation and technology

  • Making the case for green innovation and technology
  • Recent national strategies and priorities in support of green innovation
  • Revisiting supply-side technology and innovation policies
  • Beyond technology-push: Innovation policies for diffusing green technologies
  • Enabling governance structures to facilitate transition

Chapter 3. Science and technology perspectives on an ageing society

  • Demographic trends: Profiling ageing societies
  • Major challenges ahead
  • Scientific advances and new technologies: What’s in the pipeline?
  • Harnessing the opportunities: Addressing the obstacles

Chapter 4. Innovation for development: the challenges ahead

  • The relevance of innovation for development
  • Inclusive development and innovation
  • Globalisation

Part III. Main trends in science, technology and innovation (STI) policy

Chapter 5. STI policy profiles: Innovation policy governance

  • National strategies for science, technology and innovation (download)
  • STI governance structures and arrangements
  • Evaluation of STI policies

Chapter 6. STI policy profiles: Building competences and capacity to innovate

  • Innovation policy mix for business R&D and innovation (download)
  • Financing business R&D and innovation (download)
  • Tax incentives for R&D and innovation
  • Service innovation and non-technological innovation
  • Stimulating demand for innovation
  • Start-up and entrepreneurship
  • Public research policy
  • Public-sector innovation

Chapter 7. STI policy profiles: Strengthening interactions for innovation

  • ICT infrastructures and ICT policies for innovation
  • Cluster policy and smart specialisation
  • Open science
  • Commercialisation of public research (download)
  • Patent policies
  • Intellectual property markets
  • Building international STI linkages

Chapter 8. STI policy profiles: Human resources for innovation

  • Strengthening education for innovation
  • Human resources policies for innovation
  • Building an innovation culture

Chapter 9. STI policy profiles: Facing new challenges

  • Green technology and innovation
  • Technology to manage natural disasters and catastrophes
  • Policies for emerging technologies

Part IV. Assessing STI performance

Chapter 10. Science and innovation: Country profiles

OECD member countries



Austria Belgium Canada Chile


Denmark Estonia Finland France



Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland



Italy Japan Korea Luxembourg



Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland



Slovenia Spain Sweden
Switzerland Turkey United

Non-member economies



Brazil China Colombia Egypt

India Indonesia Russian
South Africa    

STI e-Outlook

This online portal allows benchmarking of quantitative and qualitative material gathered during data and information collection for the STI Outlook 2012.

Interactive graphs allow for easy comparison between countries. In addition, with this tool national delegations can access the OECD STI Outlook Policy Database (access restricted to delegates) used to compile the country responses to the policy questionnaires underlying the publication.

Note to Internet Explorer users: The STI e-Outlook requires IE 9 or later.

 STI e-Outlook

How to obtain this publication

 Readers can access the full version of the book choosing from the following options:

  • Subscribers and readers at subscribing institutions can access this title on the OECD iLibrary.
  • Non-subscribers can browse free online and purchase the pdf e-book and/or print edition on the OECD Online Bookshop. (NB: Print edition available in October 2012)
  • Order from your local distributor.
  • Government officials with accounts (subscribe) can go to the "Books" tab on OLIS.


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