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  • 15-April-2021

    English

    Policies for a climate-neutral industry - Lessons from the Netherlands

    This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of the policy instruments adopted by the Netherlands to reach carbon neutrality in its manufacturing sector by 2050. The analysis illustrates the strength of combining a strong commitment to raising carbon prices with ambitious technology support, uncovers the pervasiveness of competitiveness provisions, and highlights the trade-off between short-term emissions cuts and longer-term technology shift. The Netherlands’ carbon levy sets an ambitious price trajectory to 2030, but is tempered by extensive preferential treatment to energy-intensive users, yielding a highly unequal carbon price across firms and sectors. The country’s technology support focuses on the cost-effective deployment of low-carbon options, which ensures least-cost decarbonisation in the short run but favours relatively mature technologies. The paper offers recommendations for policy adjustments to reach the country’s carbon neutrality objective, including the gradual removal of exemptions, enhanced support for emerging technologies and greater visibility over future infrastructure plans.
  • 13-April-2021

    English

    What future for science, technology and innovation after COVID-19?

    The COVID-19 crisis may bring lasting socioeconomic changes, also affecting science, technology and innovation (STI). This paper discusses the effects that the COVID-19 crisis could have on the future of STI and its policies, building on lessons learned from past crises, an analysis of diverse sources of early data and insights from expert discussions in international policy fora. Factors shaping the future of STI include the unequal effects of the crisis on R&D spending across sectors, the accelerated adoption of digital tools and techniques, and changes in the openness and inclusiveness of research and innovation ecosystems. The paper also explores how STI policy could experience fundamental changes as resilience, environmental sustainability and inclusiveness become more prominent objectives on policy agendas. This includes experimentation with new data and digital tools for policy purposes and unconventional policy approaches, which could spur the adoption of new and more effective STI policies.
  • 13-April-2021

    English

    Mission-oriented innovation policy in Japan - Challenges, opportunities and future options

    This report assesses the potential for mission-oriented innovation policies (MOIPs) to contribute to the sustainable transition in Japan, and examines the challenges and opportunities that MOIPs would present. As part of a series of MOIP national case studies, the report finds that the ongoing ambitious and top-down MOIPs led by the center-of-government build upon a long history of proactive and goal-oriented policy intervention. MOIPs in Japan are the latest step of decades of efforts to reduce the fragmentation and lack of holistic coordination of Japan’s science, technology and innovation policy in order to proactively address societal challenges. Available evaluations of these policies demonstrate very encouraging results in that regards. The study concludes with recommendations to pursue these efforts, including by mainstreaming these policy initiatives across the government structure and complementing them with more bottom-up challenge-based initiatives.
  • 12-April-2021

    English, PDF, 2,262kb

    Steel production capacity and trade dynamics

    One of the main concerns regarding excess capacity in the global steel market is how it affects international trade dynamics. An analysis of bilateral trade patterns reveals that capacity increases are likely to inflate exports after one year-on average and are likely to have persistent effect on trade.

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  • 9-April-2021

    English

    Report on China’s shipbuilding industry and policies affecting it

    This report analyses the structural characteristics of China’s shipbuilding industry, notably through comparison of other major shipbuilding economies. Building upon previous reports drafted in 2008 and 2011, it aims to analyse China’s shipbuilding sector from a holistic and multidisciplinary perspective (e.g. the interconnection between trade, competition, monetary, financial, fiscal and industrial policies), with a particular emphasis on government support measures. Key findings from these analyses suggest that: 1) China’s shipbuilding industry has been labelled as a strategic industry, which may equally explain China’s intention to move up the shipbuilding value chain, 2) State-owned conglomerates hold a lot of influence in China’s shipbuilding industry, 3) Government support to the Chinese shipbuilding industry is alleged to have contributed to global excess capacity.
  • 8-April-2021

    English

    Mission-oriented innovation policy in Norway - Challenges, opportunities and future options

    This report assesses the potential for mission-oriented innovation policies (MOIPs) to contribute to the sustainable transition in Norway, and examines the challenges and opportunities that MOIPs would present. As part of a series of MOIP national case studies, the report finds that MOIPs could contribute significantly to alleviating some of the long-standing limitations of Norway’s innovation system, acknowledging the country’s strong advantages for mission-orientation and its innovative policy experimentations, such as the Pilot-E scheme and the CLIMIT programme. It proposes two options for Norway’s future MOIP approach, with corresponding recommendations. Under a ‘scaling-up’ option, Norway would develop a system to manage the implementation of cross-agency schemes in relevant challenge areas. A ‘levelling-up’ option would involve the programming of a pilot mission in the four-year investment plan of the next edition of Norway’s Long Term Plan, with support from high-level policy and political actors.
  • 2-April-2021

    English

    Blueprint for improved measurement of the international ocean economy - An exploration of satellite accounting for ocean economic activity

    Sustainably managing the ocean requires reliable measures of the ocean’s contributions to society and the effects that human activities have on the marine environment. This paper informs current international discussions on the measurement of ocean economic activities. It summarises the extent to which the ocean is crucial to society, outlines national approaches to measuring ocean economies, establishes an OECD definition of ocean economic activities for statistical purposes, and introduces a plan to improve international ocean economy statistics through the pragmatic development of satellite accounts. By measuring the full range of ocean economic activities, this framework will improve evidence on ocean sustainability and lay the foundations for ocean accounts that include economic-environmental linkages.
  • 31-March-2021

    English

    ANBERD (Analytical Business Enterprise Research and Development) database

    Data set on R&D expenditure by industry which addresses the problems of international comparability and breaks in the time series of the official business enterprise R&D data.

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  • 30-March-2021

    English

    MultiProd: Uncovering the micro drivers of aggregate productivity

    The MultiProd project studies productivity patterns and investigates the extent to which different policy frameworks can shape firm productivity. It examines the way resources are allocated to more productive firms.

  • 25-March-2021

    English

    Demand for AI skills in jobs - Evidence from online job postings

    This report presents new evidence about occupations requiring artificial intelligence (AI)-related competencies, based on online job posting data and previous work on identifying and measuring developments in AI. It finds that the total number of AI-related jobs increased over time in the four countries considered – Canada, Singapore, the United Kingdom and the United States – and that a growing number of jobs require multiple AI-related skills. Skills related to communication, problem solving, creativity and teamwork gained relative importance over time, as did complementary software-related and AI-specific competencies. As expected, many AI-related jobs are posted in categories such as 'professionals' and 'technicians and associated professionals', though AI-related skills are in demand, to varying degrees, across almost all sectors of the economy. In all countries considered, the sectors 'Information and Communication', 'Financial and Insurance Activities' and 'Professional, Scientific and Technical Activities' are the most AI job-intensive.
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