This report discusses challenges and opportunities in assessing the impacts of science-industry
knowledge exchange on innovation. The report provides new evidence on joint industry-science
patenting activity and academic start-ups, as well as on the impact of geographical
proximity between research institutions and industry on local innovation. The report
explores the complex set of knowledge-transfer channels, such as collaborative research,
co-patenting, academic spinoffs, and their relative importance across science fields
and industry sectors. It also experiments with using labour force survey data to assess
the contributions of graduates in social sciences to different industries.
Different policy mixes are used in OECD countries to stimulate science-industry knowledge
transfer. This report presents a taxonomy of 21 policy instruments, which include
grants for collaborative university-industry research and financial support to university
spin-offs, and discusses their possible positive and negative interactions. Based
on a number of country case studies, the report also sheds light on new policy approaches
to support spin-off creation. The report also explores recent trends on the governance
of public research of high relevance to science-industry knowledge transfer using
newly developed policy indicators for 35 OECD countries.