This report looks at the human resource requirements for data-intensive science, focusing primarily on research conducted in the public sector, and the related challenges and training needs. Digitalisation is, to some extent, being driven by science, while simultaneously affecting all aspects of scientific practice. Open science, including access to data, is being widely promoted, and investment in cyber-infrastructures and digital platforms is increasing; but inadequate attention has been given to the skills that researchers and research support professionals need to fully exploit these tools. The COVID-19 pandemic, which struck as this report was being finalised, has underscored the critical importance of data-intensive science and the need for strategic approaches to strengthening the digital capacity and skills of the scientific enterprise as a whole. The report includes policy recommendations for various actors and good practice examples to support these recommendations.