A major challenge facing the Republic of Buryatia, subject of the Russian Federation, is how to balance the task of protecting Lake Baikal – a unique water object and ecological system included in the UNESCO list of World Natural Heritage Areas – with the need for dynamic and sustainable socio-economic development of the republic. This requires streamlining and improving water policy jointly with economic, administrative, information and other policy instruments. The recommendations in this report aim to help achieve this objective. They include the introduction of abstraction charges for irrigation water as a natural resource; enhancement of state support to the water sector; and improvement of economic instruments for managing risks of water-related hazards (such as compulsory insurance and differentiated land tax rates in flood prone areas). A few innovative instruments are also recommended for pilot testing such as establishing limits for discharges of certain hazardous substances in a pilot area (e.g. Selenga river basin) and progressive development of market for tradable quotas for discharges of the “capped” pollutants; and introducing a charge (tax) on toxic agricultural chemicals (pesticides, herbicides, etc.) and synthetic detergents so that to create incentives for the reduction of diffuse water pollution.
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This report is part of the OECD regulatory reform programme which assesses the regulatory framework of countries examined and suggests possible improvements to enhance economic growth, competition, innovation and market openness.
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The Russian Railway system is in the process of rapid legal, organisational and regulatory reform. This paper is based on a series of discussions with the Government on the reform plans and the progress in implementing reform. The conclusions are not intended to be interpreted as requirements or instructions on the next steps in the process. They instead aim to raise questions where, from observing difficult reform issues in other
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The Russian government has embarked on a highly ambitious program of electricity reform. Russian policymakers have recognised that attracting timely and appropriate investment will remain a substantial and ongoing challenge, which can most effectively be addressed through the creation of efficient electricity markets operating in response to genuine price signals, within a robust and predictable legal and regulatory framework.
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Competition policy is central to regulatory reform, because its principles and analysis provide a benchmark for assessing the quality of economic and social regulations, as well as motivate the application of the laws that protect competition. As regulatory reform stimulates structural change, vigorous enforcement of competition policy is needed to prevent private market abuses from reversing the benefits of reform. A complement to
The Russia review follows a multidisciplinary approach and covers the overall economic context for regulatory reform, the government’s capacity to manage regulatory reform, competition policy and enforcement, and market openness.