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  • 6-April-2021

    English

    Evaluating fiscal equalisation - Finding the right balance

    Fiscal equalisation refers to the transfer of financial resources to and between subnational governments with the aim of mitigating regional differences in fiscal capacity and expenditure needs. However, the determination of fiscal capacity and expenditure needs is not a straightforward task. OECD countries use widely varying mechanism design approaches in their equalisation systems. This paper compares national approaches, covering the three modes of fiscal equalisation: pure revenue equalisation, revenue/cost equalisation and gap-filling equalisation, describing the distinct impacts of each approach on subnational revenue disparities. A clear inverse relationship emerges between the size of the cost-equalising component within a system and the percentage change in subnational per capita revenue disparities after equalising transfers are applied, although no significant relationship emerges between equalisation and regional convergence.
  • 30-March-2021

    English

    The spatial dimension of productivity in Italian co-operatives

    This report explores the spatial dimension of productivity in the co-operatives of Italy, a country where they make up a relatively large share of total national employment. Co-operatives play a countercyclical role in job creation during crises. In a post-pandemic world, they could make a major contribution to steering the economy towards inclusiveness and sustainability. Productivity growth ensures that co-operatives can achieve both economic and social goals in the future. This report applies a place-based approach to investigate the issue of productivity in co-operatives, given their many interdependencies with local communities. Novel evidence points to the local factors that are linked with the concentration and productivity of co-operatives across regions, sectors and firm size classes in Italy. A comparison with other Italian firms as well as with Spanish co-operatives and other Spanish firms serves to illustrate how productivity performance varies across space and firm types. This report constitutes an empirical test for the analytical approach developed by the OECD Spatial Productivity Lab.
  • 26-March-2021

    English

    Water governance in Asia-Pacific

    The Asia-Pacific region has been hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic, with over 250 000 deaths as of March 2021 and a decrease in GDP by 4.3% in ASEAN and by 2.0% in Emerging Asia in 2020. The pandemic acted as a magnifying glass on pressing water and sanitation challenges in Asia-Pacific countries, stressing and widening inequalities for 30 to 40% of households that do not have a dedicated place for washing hands with soap and water on premises. This report uses the OECD Principles on Water Governance as an assessment framework to provide a regional analysis of the state of play of water governance in 48 countries of the Asia – Pacific region. It maps the existence and level of implementation of key governance frameworks, institutions and mechanisms, and dives into select governance gaps before drawing preliminary observations on the extent to which effective water governance correlates with tangible water security outcomes in surveyed countries.
  • 24-March-2021

    English

    Sustainable Infrastructure for Low-carbon Development in the EU Eastern Partnership - Hotspot Analysis and Needs Assessment

    This report analyses planned infrastructure projects, decision-making frameworks related to infrastructure development and strategic planning documents in the six countries of the EU Eastern Partnership: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. It compares current investment flows with countries' national development objectives to identify misalignments and provides policy-makers with recommendations to improve the integration of climate change and other environmental concerns into infrastructure development decision-making processes. The report presents a comprehensive overview of infrastructure investment, primarily in the transport and energy sectors, throughout the region and identifies the risks and opportunities emerging from current investment patterns.
  • 16-March-2021

    English

    Towards COVID-19 recovery and greater resilience in Zuid-Holland, The Netherlands

    This paper aims to provide guidance to the Zuid-Holland province (The Netherlands) and its partners on developing their post-COVID 19 Joint Growth Agenda. It draws on broader OECD analysis of cities’ policy responses to the COVID-19 crisis, the OECD Principles on Urban Policy and the OECD Territorial Review of the Metropolitan Region of Rotterdam-The Hague (2016).
  • 16-March-2021

    English

    Business advice for entrepreneurship and small firms

    This paper reviews issues and trends in business advice policies for business start-ups and existing SMEs, including public support for business consultancy and mentoring. Business advice policies aim to improve the growth, survival and productivity performance of new and small firms by strengthening their strategic management capabilities. The paper examines the rationale for government policies in this field, different policy delivery models, recent policy trends - such as increased use of third party delivery and performance management systems - and evidence on policy impacts. It focuses in particular on three key issues faced by policy makers - how to stimulate demand for business development services from firms and entrepreneurs who could benefit; how to target and segment support provided to different types of firms and entrepreneurs; and how to introduce digital business diagnostic tools into the advice system.
  • 9-March-2021

    English

    Relaunch of productivity for regional growth and cohesion

    The OECD Spatial Productivity Lab in collaboration with Politecnico di Milano organises a special sessions on "Relaunch of productivity for regional growth and cohesion" at the the 60th ERSA congress “Territorial Futures - Visions and scenarios for a resilient Europe", on 24-28 August 2021 in Bolzano, Italy. A call for papers is open until 30 March 2021.

  • 9-March-2021

    English

    Future-Proofing Adult Learning in London, United Kingdom

    Cities are not only home to around half of the global population but are also at the forefront of the transformation of jobs, skills and labour markets. Furthermore, cities play a leading role in the COVID-19 response, as the pandemic is not only accelerating megatrends such as digitalisation and automation that change the world of work, but is also challenging city economies. In London, COVID-19 has caused an unprecedented labour market shock, with several service sectors having been devastated. The crisis and its impact on employment and firms make skills development and adult learning more important than ever. London is the first major city within the OECD to introduce a comprehensive skills strategy. The report Future-Proofing Adult Learning in London, UK analyses London’s capacity to design effective adult learning programmes, which are critical for a strong and sustainable economic recovery and for preparing for the future of work. The report sheds light on major challenges facing London, especially in light of COVID-19, while also pointing to opportunities for London to design a future-ready adult learning system that responds to the impacts of the pandemic and aligns training to rapidly evolving labour market demands.
  • 5-March-2021

    English

    Delivering Quality Education and Health Care to All - Preparing Regions for Demographic Change

    COVID-19 has put renewed focus on the importance of addressing longstanding challenges that OECD governments face in delivering public services, especially in regions with people spread over a wider area where economies of scale are more difficult to achieve. The physical infrastructure needed to provide good quality education and health services can be more complex and expensive in rural and remote regions that also struggle to attract and retain education and health care professionals. Acute ageing trends in many rural regions and, in some cases, a shrinking population will require sustainable policy responses that will need to be coherent with pressure to drive efficiencies in public spending. This report examines the nuances specific to the delivery of education and health care to people everywhere, offering recommendations on how to better adapt provision to the realities of today and the emerging realities of tomorrow to face the challenges of distance, demographic change and fiscal belt-tightening. The report also examines digital connectivity issues in rural and remote regions, recognising the significant scope for digital delivery of services to mitigate challenges related to distance. Finally, the report looks at governance issues, including fiscal issues, through which the delivery of these critical services is administered and paid for.
  • 4-March-2021

    English

    Perspectives on Decentralisation and Rural-Urban Linkages in Korea

    The economic development of Korea is widely considered as a success story. Yet, as the country joins the ranks of the world’s most advanced economies, its rapid pace of development has not fully reached every part of its territory. The pace of urbanisation, particularly around Seoul, has placed mounting pressure on the capital’s quality of life, while in rural regions the country’s success has felt distant. To address these regional disparities, successive governments have pursued a policy of balanced national development, with major initiatives aimed at spreading economic opportunities throughout the country while at the same time transferring authority and resources to regional and local governments, to increasingly empower them to navigate their own path forward. This study takes stock of these efforts in the context of rural development and finds evidence of progress in several areas, yet opportunities remain in others. The study includes advice and recommendations on multi-level governance, rural-urban linkages and other issues drawn from the experience of OECD countries on how Korea’s efforts in pursuit of inclusive growth may be further strengthened to improve the well-being of the country's rural regions.
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