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Publications


  • 5-December-2023

    English

    Climate policies and Sweden’s green industrial revolution

    Sweden is among OECD best performers in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, much thanks to a comprehensive policy framework and relatively efficient policies. There is nonetheless room to further improve consistency of targets and policies, notably for transport, agriculture and carbon removals. Sweden’s long record as a climate frontrunner is also threatened by policy changes moving the 2030 reduction target out of reach unless compensated by new ambitious measures. A green industrial revolution is gaining momentum in Sweden’s north, fuelled by an abundant supply of clean electricity. Considerable investments in electricity generation, storage and transmission are needed, but long planning and permitting procedures slow many key projects down. The green revolution depends on people and skills to run industry and complementary public services. This is a challenge for northern regions and municipalities already facing labour shortages.
  • 5-December-2023

    English

    Strengthening Integrity Leadership in Brazil’s Federal Public Administration - Applying Behavioural Insights for Public Integrity

    The behaviours of both top- and middle-level managers matter for promoting open organisational cultures, mitigating integrity risks and fostering ethical behaviour by their staff. This report examines key issues around integrity leadership in Brazil’s federal public administration, based on an extensive survey of senior public officials. Informed and inspired by behavioural insights, it provides concrete recommendations for strengthening integrity leadership in Brazil.
  • 4-December-2023

    English

    Migration and regional productivity: Evidence from individual wages in Australia

    This paper examines the contribution of international migrants to regional differences in labour productivity in Australia. The study relies on individual-level administrative wage data from 2011 to 2018. It finds that a region with a 10% larger migrant share has, on average, a 1.3% larger regional wage difference, which indicates a positive link between migration and labour productivity. The presence of migrants benefits native workers with different skill levels residing in all types of regions. The positive effects of migrants are even more pronounced for higher-skilled migrants. Concretely, a region with a 10% larger share of higher-skilled migrants has, on average, a 1% higher regional productivity difference. However, these additional benefits mainly accrue to more productive regions and those with higher migrant shares than the median region.
  • 4-December-2023

    English

    Strengthening strategic planning and the role of PlanAPP in Portugal

    This policy paper provides an analysis of the new the Portuguese Competence Centre for Planning, Policy and Foresight in Public Administration (PlanAPP) and its functions in Portugal, focusing on strategic planning and networking activities. It analyses the role of PlanAPP in aligning and harmonising the strategic planning process and in ensuring evidence-informed, inclusive and co-ordinated strategic planning, particularly through RePLAN, Portugal’s Public Administration Planning and Foresight Services Network. The paper makes recommendations to help Portugal effectively implement the competency centre model, consolidate its strategic planning process, better define and co-ordinate high-level priorities, and set a path to achieve them effectively and coherently.
  • 4-December-2023

    English

    Multi-level governance and subnational finance in Asia and the Pacific

    Subnational governments in Asia and the Pacific are key providers of the public services and infrastructure required to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. Given this role, it is essential that policymakers and development partners understand and support the effective functioning of multi-level governance structures and subnational government finances across the region. This joint OECD-ADB report provides a comprehensive overview of subnational governments across Asia and the Pacific. It covers over 467,000 subnational governments from 26 countries, which represent 53% of the world’s population and 40% of global GDP. On average in 2020, subnational governments in the region accounted for 29% of total public expenditure (8.8% of GDP), 35% of total public revenue (8.5% of GDP) and 38% of public investment (2% of GDP). Harnessing unique data from the 3rd edition of the OECD-UCLG World Observatory on Subnational Government Finance and Investment, the analysis highlights how decentralisation and territorial reforms have reconfigured the structures and finances of subnational governments in the region. It covers a range of topics including fiscal rules, financial management capacity, priority-based budgeting, asset management and the use of public-private partnerships.
  • 4-December-2023

    English

    Climate adaptation: Why local governments cannot do it alone

    Given the direct impacts of climate change are felt first and foremost at the local level, many have called for climate adaptation to be a local responsibility. Indeed, local authorities have a major influence on climate change adaptation - such as through their land use and permitting decisions. Yet, their actions are strongly determined by the national fiscal, regulatory and policy contexts in which they are embedded in. This policy paper provides an overview and a discussion of the roles and responsibilities for climate adaptation across levels of government. It argues that co-operation across levels of government is needed to strengthen adaptation at the local level. This policy paper was prepared as part of the OECD Territorial Approach to Climate Action and Resilience programme, which supports subnational authorities in their efforts to accelerate the net zero transition and build systemic resilience.
  • 1-December-2023

    English

    OECD Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil Fuels 2023

    Despite commitments to scale up and speed up climate action, the fiscal cost of government support for fossil fuels almost doubled in 2022 to reach more than USD 1.4 trillion as governments across the OECD and partner countries introduced substantial initiatives to mitigate high energy costs on households and firms, caused in part by Russia's war of aggression against Ukraine. This rising trend is a real threat to our collective net zero goals and highlights the challenges of staying on track with net zero commitments in the face of geopolitical and economic disruption. Going forward, it will be critical that support measures are reformed to better target those most in need. Support for fossil fuels should also be phased out as soon as possible. This will help free up much needed resources for the transition towards net zero emissions and accelerate innovation to improve energy efficiency.
  • 1-December-2023

    English

    Career Readiness Review: The Commonwealth of Virginia, United States

    This report assesses how the United States Commonwealth of Virginia is preparing young people for their working lives through career development. It builds on OECD longitudinal analyses which identify forms of career development that can be most confidently associated with better employment outcomes for young people. Collecting data from current secondary school students and young adults in the labour market, the report provides an oversight of career development in Virginia. It then explores the extent to which students are being effectively, efficiently and equitably prepared for their working lives through career guidance programmes. Career readiness is a policy of high importance and the report identifies many strengths within the Virginia system. In order to enhance provision however, there is need to update career readiness standards, frameworks and instruments, and to engage employers and people in work more systematically within guidance activities. Opportunity exists to better amplify labour market signalling, particularly with regard to the skilled trades. The report highlights international practice that can be expected to reduce inequalities in provision, linked especially to the socio-economic backgrounds of students and their geographic location. Here, scope exists notably to draw on digital technologies to enhance provision.
  • 30-November-2023

    English

    Carbon Management: Bioeconomy and Beyond

    The bioeconomy brings opportunities for economic growth while tackling climate change. Fossil carbon resources can be replaced by bio-based carbon resources, especially biomass. To allow these solutions to be scaled up without threats to biodiversity and the environment, it is necessary to develop the bioeconomy as a circular economy. With this carbon management approach, other sources of carbon complement biomass: industrial waste, including gases such as CO and CO2, as well as physically and chemically recycled carbon. In the future, direct air capture (DAC) may become competitive and form part of the solution. These approaches can be considered ‘circular’ because they close material loops and keep carbon recycling in the economy rather than emitting carbon to the atmosphere. This report reviews a number of hybrid technologies that can be deployed to ‘defossilise’ economic sectors and sets out policy options to bring these technologies to commercial scale.
  • 30-November-2023

    English

    Navigating green and digital transitions - Five imperatives for effective STI policy

    This paper discusses five innovation policy imperatives critical to achieving green and digital transitions: coordinated government, stakeholder engagement, policy agility and experimentation, directionality and support for breakthrough innovation. The paper provides policy examples from Germany, based on the OECD Review of Innovation Policy: Germany , and other countries to illustrate in what ways countries have addressed these imperatives. Overall, the quality and scale of these policy responses need to increase if transitions are to succeed. Open questions for future policy research are also highlighted.
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