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Publications


  • 26-July-2022

    English

    Digital Trade Review of Brazil

    This Digital Trade Review of Brazil provides an overview of Brazil’s participation in digital trade and the related regulatory environment. It provides insights into how Brazil might ensure that the new challenges raised by the digital transformation for trade can be managed and the benefits shared more inclusively. While Brazil has embraced the digital transformation and has strong potential to benefit from digital trade, it will need to continue the ongoing process of regulatory reform. This includes reducing tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade on ICT goods; reducing regulatory barriers to ICT services; increasing engagement in international discussions on digital trade; and continuing efforts to bridge digital divides.
  • 8-July-2022

    English

    SME Policy Index: Western Balkans and Turkey 2022 - Assessing the Implementation of the Small Business Act for Europe

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are essential drivers of sustainable economic growth in the Western Balkans and Turkey, where they make up 99% of all firms, generate 65% value added and account for 75% of employment. Nevertheless, SMEs across the region continue to face obstacles such as difficulties accessing financing, low levels of digital uptake, regulatory barriers and relatively low participation in international trade. The situation has been further exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic: SMEs found themselves fighting for survival amidst reduced demand, lockdowns and travel restrictions, and supply chain disruptions.  This report provides an overview of the implementation of the Small Business Act for Europe during the period 2019-22. It is designed to help policy makers design, implement and monitor policies to support the recovery of SMEs from the pandemic, boost their competitiveness based on OECD and EU good practices, and further enhance the region’s economic growth and resilience.  
  • 7-July-2022

    English

    Production Transformation Policy Review of Shenzhen, China - A Journey of Continuous Learning

    Shenzhen is a stellar case of growth and economic transformation. Since its establishment as one of China’s first four Special Economic Zones in 1980, it has evolved at breakneck speed. Shenzhen transformed from a fishing village to a major world trade hub and is now home to global innovators in electronics. The Production Transformation Policy Review (PTPR) of Shenzhen, China reviews the city’s changing policy approaches, focusing on the shift from an assembly to a manufacturing centre and more recently to an innovation and start-up hub. Through a comprehensive assessment of Shenzhen’s experience, this review offers insights into the range of policies and strategies employed to stimulate industrial upgrading and learning in China. It provides lessons and actionable policy recommendations for the growth of cities and emerging economies in their catching-up journey. The PTPR of Shenzhen, China has been carried out in the framework of the OECD Initiative for Policy Dialogue on Global Value Chains, Production Transformation and Development and has benefitted from government-business dialogues and international peer learning (University of Seoul, Korea; University of Georgetown, USA and Digital India Foundation, India).
  • 4-July-2022

    English

    Fostering a strong labour market to support the recovery and sustain growth in Switzerland

    Switzerland has a well-functioning labour market with low unemployment, a highly skilled workforce and well-paid jobs. It has proved resilient during the COVID-19 crisis, helped by extensive government support to employment and incomes. As activity recovers, the authorities face the challenge of adapting support measures to avoid hindering job reallocation and productivity growth while ensuring adequate support to vulnerable firms and workers. The pandemic has also reinforced certain pre-existing challenges. The already sizeable gender pay gap risks widening, and older workers face a higher risk of long-term unemployment. Making the labour market more inclusive would help the recovery and raise productivity. Switzerland would benefit from bringing under-represented groups more effectively into the labour market. Raising skills and lowering inequities in education and training will also be essential to facilitate job transitions and ensure that workers and firms benefit from technological change and the digital transformation.
  • 4-July-2022

    English

    Managing and Financing Water for Growth in Thailand - Highlights of a National Dialogue on Water

    The National Dialogue on Water in Thailand was initiated in 2021 under the regional initiative with the Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Korea (MoE), the Asia Water Council (AWC) and the OECD. The Dialogue covers two main topics selected by the Government of Thailand (ONWR). The first one is water demand management, with a focus on the Eastern Economic Corridor. The second one is financing water supply and sanitation. Both combine to support a sustainable and resilient development pathway for Thailand's fast-growing economy. The analyses and policy recommendations cover issues such as the design of economic policy instruments, water allocation regimes, increasing demand for reclaimed water, or benchmarking the performance of water utilities, and blended finance for water supply and sanitation services. They are informed by the expertise of Thai stakeholders, the OECD and the Asia Water Council. They can be a source of inspiration in other contexts in South East Asia and globally.
  • 30-June-2022

    English

    Test No. 456: H295R Steroidogenesis Assay

    This Test Guideline describes an in vitro screen for chemical effects on steroidogenesis, specifically the production of 17ß-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T). The human H295R adreno-carcinoma cell line, used for the assay, expresses genes that encode for all the key enzymes for steroidogenesis. After an acclimation period of 24 h in multi-well plates, cells are exposed for 48 h to seven concentrations of the test chemical in at least triplicate. Solvent and a known inhibitor and inducer of hormone production are run at a fixed concentration as negative and positive controls. At the end of the exposure period, cell viability in each well is analyzed. Concentrations of hormones in the medium can be measured using a variety of methods including commercially available hormone measurement kits and/or instrumental techniques such as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data are expressed as fold change relative to the solvent control and the Lowest-Observed-Effect-Concentration. If the assay is negative, the highest concentration tested is reported as the No-Observed-Effect-Concentration.
  • 30-June-2022

    English

    Test No. 467: Defined Approaches for Serious Eye Damage and Eye Irritation

    This Test Guideline proposes defined approaches (DA) combining data generated in vitro methods, with information sources such as physicochemical properties. The prediction from a DA may be used alone to determine eye hazard potential according to the hazard classes of the UN GHS (Categories 1, 2, or not classified). A DA consists of a fixed data interpretation procedure (DIP) (i.e. a mathematical model, a rule-based approach) applied to data (e.g in silico predictions, in chemico, in vitro data) generated with a defined set of information sources to derive a prediction without the need for expert judgment. The DAs use method combinations intended to overcome some of the limitations of the individual, stand-alone methods in order to provide increased confidence in the overall obtained result.
  • 30-June-2022

    English

    Test No. 442D: In Vitro Skin Sensitisation - ARE-Nrf2 Luciferase Test Method

    The present Test Guideline addresses the human health hazard endpoint skin sensitisation, following exposure to a test chemical. Skin sensitisation refers to an allergic response following skin contact with the tested chemical, as defined by the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN GHS). This Test Guideline (TG) provides an in vitro procedure (the ARE-Nrf2 luciferase test method) used for supporting the discrimination between skin sensitisers and non-sensitisers in accordance with the UN GHS. The second key event on the adverse outcome pathway leading to skin sensitisation takes place in the keratinocytes and includes inflammatory responses as well as gene expression associated with specific cell signalling pathways such as the antioxidant/electrophile response element (ARE)-dependent pathways. The test method described in this Test Guideline (ARE-Nrf2 luciferase test method) is proposed to address this second key event. The cell line contains the luciferase gene under the transcriptional control of a constitutive promoter fused with an ARE element from a gene that is known to be up-regulated by contact sensitisers. The luciferase signal reflects the activation by sensitisers of endogenous Nrf2 dependent genes. This allows quantitative measurement (by luminescence detection) of luciferase gene induction, using well established light producing luciferase substrates, as an indicator of the activity of the Nrf2 transcription factor in cells following exposure to electrophilic test substances. There are currently two in vitro ARE-Nrf2 luciferase test method covered by this Test Guideline: the KeratinoSensTM test method and the LuSens test method. Performance standards have been developed to enable the validation of similar test methods.
  • 30-June-2022

    English

    Test No. 124: Determination of the Volume Specific Surface Area of Manufactured Nanomaterials

    This Test Guideline (TG) describes a harmonised procedure to determine the Volume Specific Surface Area (VSSA) of powdered solid manufactured nanomaterials (MNs). The VSSA (in m2/cm3) of a material is calculated by multiplying its mass specific surface area (in m2/g) with its skeletal density (in g/cm3). The determination of the external and internal (mass) specific surface area (SSA) of powdered solid MNs is done by the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) method. This TG also provides instructions on how to determine the skeletal density (ρ) of the MN by gas pycnometry.
  • 30-June-2022

    English

    Test No. 251: Rapid Androgen Disruption Activity Reporter (RADAR) assay

    The Rapid Androgen Disruption Activity Reporter (RADAR) Test Guideline describes an aquatic assay that utilizes transgenic Oryzias latipes (O. latipes, Japanese medaka) eleutheroembryos at day post hatch zero, in a multi-well format to detect chemicals active on the androgen axis. The RADAR assay was designed as a screening tool to provide a short-term assay to measure the response of eleutheroembryos to chemicals potentially active on the androgen axis. Test organisms are exposed for 72 hours in six-well plates in the presence and absence of a co-treatment with 17-methyl testosterone. The assay comprises five concentrations of the test chemical. At the end of the exposure, fluorescence imaging is measured and transformed into a numerical format; the statistical analysis and data interpretation procdure enable to determine whether the test chemical is considered active or not active.
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