Publications


  • 22-November-2018

    English

    SME and Entrepreneurship Policy in Kazakhstan 2018

    The government of Kazakhstan has set the objective of substantially the contribution of SMEs and entrepreneurs to employment and value added in the economy. Although there are large numbers of SMEs and entrepreneurs in the country, this will require a step change in the productivity of enterprises and the emergence of a many more medium-sized and growth-oriented firms.This report recognises the important achievements of the Kazakhstan government in creating a clear vision and policy structures for SMEs and entrepreneurs, including through the Business Road Map 2020 and major regulatory improvements. It also highlights the current challenge of doing more to strengthen management capabilities, skills, and innovation in SMEs and new enterprises, and recommends a range of relevant actions including further building the incubator and Entrepreneurship Support Centre infrastructure, introducing dedicated support for high-growth potential enterprises, and stimulating supply chain linkages around foreign director investors.
  • 5-November-2018

    English

    OECD Competition Assessment Reviews: Portugal - Volume II - Self-Regulated Professions

    Several of Portugal’s product markets remain among the most heavily regulated in the OECD, not least in the services sector. As vital inputs into the business sector, the liberal professions, such as legal services, architects and engineers, generate up to 1.8 times their value in outputs when they are used by firms. Having structural flaws such as access restrictions and reserved tasks, adversely affect the availability of such services for firms, there hence their ability to effectively compete in the markets. Regulatory restrictions also hamper innovation, efficiency and productivity within the liberal professions themselves. Against this backdrop, this report analyses Portuguese regulations for 13 self-regulated liberal professions (lawyers, solicitors, notaries, bailiffs, architects, engineers, technical engineers, certified accountants, auditors, economists, customs brokers, nutritionists and pharmacists). Using the OECD Competition Assessment Toolkit to structure the analysis, the project analysed 923 pieces of legislation. The report identifies 323 legal provisions which could be removed or amended to lift regulatory barriers to competition. The analysis of the Portuguese legislation and professions has been complemented by research into international experience and wide consultations with stakeholders from the public and private sectors. The OECD recommendations aim to remove or modify the identified provisions in order to be less restrictive in the access or exercise of the professions, to the benefit of businesses and consumers alike, while still achieving the policy objectives as stated by the Portuguese government. This report identifies the sources of those benefits and, where possible, provides quantitative estimates.
  • 5-November-2018

    English

    OECD Competition Assessment Reviews: Portugal - Volume I - Inland and Maritime Transports and Ports

    Several of Portugal’s product markets remain among the most heavily regulated in the OECD, not least in the services sector. The inland and maritime transports in Portugal are a vital part of the business environment, ensuring the movement of goods and passengers and allowing for inputs into the business sector to arrive when and where they are needed. Regulatory restrictions on entry, on the market structure, and on company formation adversely affect the ability of firms, whether providers or customers, to effectively compete in the markets. Regulatory restrictions also hamper innovation, efficiency and productivity. Against this backdrop, this report analyses Portuguese regulations for road, railway and maritime transport and many anxilary services (such as vehicle inspection centres), as well as Portugal’s ports. Using the OECD Competition Assessment Toolkit to structure the analysis, the project analysed 904 pieces of legislation. The report identifies 405 legal provisions which could be removed or amended to lift regulatory barriers to competition. The analysis of the Portuguese legislation has been complemented by research into international experience and wide consultations with stakeholders from the public and private sectors. The OECD recommendations aim to remove or modify the restrictive provisions in order to benefit businesses and consumers, while still achieving the policy of the Portuguese government. This report identifies the sources of those benefits and, where possible, provides quantitative estimates.
  • 31-October-2018

    English

    Australian Services Trade in the Global Economy

    This book presents an in depth analysis of the contribution of services to the Australian economy, the regulatory environment of the services sector and its performance in an international context. The analysis highlights the importance of co-ordinated domestic policy action, priorities for promoting behind-the-border regulatory reforms in strategic international markets, and the benefits of an ambitious bilateral, plurilateral and multilateral trade policy agenda that contributes to rules-based certainty and predictability in services trade globally.
  • 31-October-2018

    English

    Revenue Statistics in Africa 2018

    The publication Revenue Statistics in Africa is jointly undertaken by the OECD Centre for Tax Policy and Administration and the OECD Development Centre, the African Union Commission (AUC) and the African Tax Administration Forum (ATAF) with the financial support of the European Union. It compiles comparable tax revenue and non-tax revenue statistics for 21 countries in Africa: Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cabo Verde, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Egypt, Eswatini, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Mauritius, Morocco, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, South Africa, Togo, Tunisia and Uganda. The model is the OECD Revenue Statistics database which is a fundamental reference, backed by a well-established methodology, for OECD member countries. Extending the OECD methodology to African countries enables comparisons about tax levels and tax structures on a consistent basis, both among African economies and with OECD, Latin American, Caribbean and Asian economies.SPECIAL FEATURE: STRATEGY FOR THE HARMONISATION OF STATISTICS IN AFRICA (SHaSA): 2017-2026
  • 31-October-2018

    English

    OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Viet Nam 2018

    This review uses the OECD Policy Framework for Investment to present an assessment of the investment climate in Viet Nam and to discuss the challenges and opportunities faced by the government of Viet Nam in its reform efforts. It includes chapters on foreign investment trends and performance, the entry and operations of foreign investors, the legal framework for investment, corporate governance and competition policy, tax reforms, investment promotion and facilitation, infrastructure connectivity, investment framework for green growth and policies to promote and enable responsible business conduct.
  • 25-October-2018

    English

    Review of International Regulatory Co-operation of Mexico

    International regulatory co-operation (IRC) represents an important opportunity for countries, and in particular domestic regulators, to consider the impacts of their regulations beyond their borders, expand the evidence for decision-making, learn from the experience of their peers, and develop concerted approaches to challenges that transcend borders. This report provides the first OECD assessment of a country’s IRC framework and practices. Mexico’s active efforts to embrace globalisation are reflected in many aspects of its domestic policies, practices and institutions. On one hand, it has undertaken unilateral efforts to embed international considerations in its domestic rule-making through regulatory improvement disciplines and with the consideration of international standards in the drafting of technical regulations. On the other hand, the Mexican government and individual regulators also engage extensively in co-operative efforts on regulatory matters, at the bilateral, regional and multilateral level. Based on the overview of Mexico’s practices and comparison with other OECD countries, the review recommends three areas for improvement: designing a horizontal government-wide strategy for IRC, enhancing information about the tools and benefits of IRC, and offering the necessary tools to support systematic implementation of IRC.
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  • 23-October-2018

    English

    Equity in Education - Breaking Down Barriers to Social Mobility

    In times of growing economic inequality, improving equity in education becomes more urgent. While some countries and economies that participate in the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) have managed to build education systems where socio-economic status makes less of a difference to students’ learning and well-being, every country can do more.Equity in Education: Breaking Down Barriers to Social Mobility shows that high performance and more positive attitudes towards schooling among disadvantaged 15-year-old students are strong predictors of success in higher education and work later on. The report examines how equity in education has evolved over several cycles of the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). It identifies the policies and practices that can help disadvantaged students succeed academically and feel more engaged at school.Using longitudinal data from five countries (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Switzerland, and the United States), the report also describes the links between a student’s performance near the end of compulsory education and upward social mobility – i.e. attaining a higher level of education or working in a higher-status job than one’s parents.
  • 22-October-2018

    English

    Responsive School Systems - Connecting Facilities, Sectors and Programmes for Student Success

    This report on Responsive School Systems constitutes the second of three thematic comparative reports bringing together findings from the OECD’s School Resources Review. Evolving educational objectives, changing student needs and demographic developments require school systems to be highly responsive to new patterns of demand and adapt their provision accordingly. The organisation of school facilities, sectors and programmes plays a key role in doing so and in providing students with a high-quality education where they need it. The report aims to assist governments in organising school infrastructures and services to achieve their education policy objectives and to ensure that resources are used effectively and equitably. It offers a systematic analysis of the governance of school networks, their adaption to demographic changes and student needs in urban, rural and remote areas, as well as the vertical and horizontal co-ordination of education services to improve students’ transitions.
  • 18-October-2018

    English

    Energy Subsidy Reform in the Republic of Moldova - Energy Affordability, Fiscal and Environmental Impacts

    This report looks at the fiscal, environmental and social impacts of energy subsidy reform in Moldova with a particular focus on energy affordability. Reduced value added tax (VAT) rate on natural gas consumption and a VAT exemption on electricity and heat consumption by domestic users represent the largest fossil-fuel consumer subsidies in Moldova. Reforming these will imply an increase of the VAT rate, which will lead to an increase of gas, electricity and heat tariffs for households, and will in turn affect household consumption levels, related expenditures and energy affordability. If reform measures are to work, they will need to be accompanied by a carefully-designed social policy to protect poor households.
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