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  • 17-February-2022

    English

    Driving Performance at Peru’s Water and Sanitation Services Regulator

    As 'market referees', regulators contribute to the delivery of essential public services. Their organisational culture, behaviour and governance are important factors in how regulators, and the sectors they oversee, perform. The OECD Performance Assessment Framework for Economic Regulators (PAFER) looks at the institutions, processes and practices that can create an organisational culture of performance and results. The report uses PAFER to assess elements linked to both the internal and external governance of Peru’s Water and Sanitation Services Regulator (Superintendencia Nacional de Servicios de Saneamiento, Sunass). The review acknowledges the technical expertise of Sunass within the institutional framework, analyses the key drivers of its performance, and identifies a number of opportunities to help the regulator prepare for the future, including in the context of sector-wide challenges and the COVID-19 crisis.
  • 3-February-2022

    English

    OECD Development Co-operation Peer Reviews: Spain 2022

    The OECD’s Development Assistance Committee (DAC) conducts peer reviews of individual members once every five to six years. Reviews seek to improve the quality and effectiveness of members’ development co-operation, highlighting good practices and recommending improvements. Spain has put the 2030 Agenda at the centre of its foreign policy and development co-operation. It works in alliances to reach the Sustainable Development Goals, internationally and in partner countries. Spain is valued for its work in horizontal and inclusive partnerships, and its ability to mobilise public sector expertise to capture and share knowledge. As Spain embarks on a comprehensive reform of its development co-operation strategy and architecture, this peer review provides a set of recommendations to improve strategic steering, streamline its administrative framework, strengthen human resources and fully mobilise its financial co-operation.
  • 3-February-2022

    English

    Evolving Family Models in Spain - A New National Framework for Improved Support and Protection for Families

    Spanish society values families and family life highly, but the way that families look and live has been changing drastically over the past decades. From being one of the countries with the highest fertility rates in Europe, Spain now has the lowest rate in the region and the legalisation of divorce and social acceptance of co-habitation has led to a decline in the traditional nuclear family model. At the same time, the share of mothers who are employed increased by more than 50% over the past two decades, though it remains below the OECD average. While family law has evolved quite strongly alongside these societal changes, family policy – i.e. the combination of benefits, services, tax breaks and leave arrangements that support family members in raising and providing care to minor children and other dependent persons – has undergone some changes but few major reforms. This report suggests ways to adapt Spain’s family policy to incorporate family diversity into the national policy framework, improve family well-being, reduce child poverty and make family life easier for all.
  • 2-February-2022

    English

    Regulatory Governance in the Mining Sector in Brazil

    Mining plays a crucial role in Brazil’s economy. Nonetheless, the efforts and resources devoted to regulatory quality in the sector, including the enforcement of rules, have not always been commensurate. This report identifies the gaps, barriers, implementation flaws and inefficiencies in the regulatory framework of the mining sector in Brazil. It takes stock of the recent reforms in the mining sector in Brazil, identifies areas that pose the greatest challenges for effective regulation in mining. It also describes the reforms that created the National Mining Agency of Brazil, its governance arrangements and its current regulatory practices. These are assessed against OECD principles in regulatory policy and mining regulation, as well as against country experiences from Australia, Chile, and Mexico. Finally, recommendations are provided to support further reform efforts.
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  • 31-January-2022

    English

    Production Transformation Policy Review of Shenzhen, China - A Journey of Continuous Learning

    Shenzhen is a stellar case of growth and economic transformation. Since its establishment as one of China’s first four Special Economic Zones in 1980, it has evolved at breakneck speed. Shenzhen transformed from a fishing village to a major world trade hub and is now home to global innovators in electronics. The Production Transformation Policy Review (PTPR) of Shenzhen, China reviews the city’s changing policy approaches, focusing on the shift from an assembly to a manufacturing centre and more recently to an innovation and start-up hub. Through a comprehensive assessment of Shenzhen’s experience, this review offers insights into the range of policies and strategies employed to stimulate industrial upgrading and learning in China. It provides lessons and actionable policy recommendations for the growth of cities and emerging economies in their catching-up journey. The PTPR of Shenzhen, China has been carried out in the framework of the OECD Initiative for Policy Dialogue on Global Value Chains, Production Transformation and Development and has benefitted from government-business dialogues and international peer learning (University of Seoul, Korea; University of Georgetown, USA and Digital India Foundation, India).
  • 27-January-2022

    English

    OECD Reviews of Pension Systems: Slovenia

    This review provides policy recommendations on how to improve the Slovenian pension system, building on the OECD’s best practices in pension design. It details the Slovenian pension system and identifies its strengths and weaknesses based on cross‑country comparisons. The Slovenian pension system consists of a mandatory defined benefit pay‑as‑you‑go public scheme and supplementary private schemes. The review also describes the first layer of old‑age social protection in Slovenia and discusses possible ways to improve communication about pensions. The OECD Reviews of Pension Systems: Slovenia is the seventh in the pension review series.
  • 25-January-2022

    English

    Coal 2021 - Analysis and forecast to 2024

    Coal 2021 is the world’s most comprehensive forecast of coal demand, supply and trade, based on detailed analysis of the most recent data at country and sectoral level, broken down by coal grade (thermal coal, coking coal, pulverised coal injection and lignite). Coal 2021 presents real data for 2019 and 2020, the most up-to-date estimates for 2021, and forecast for 2022, 2023 and 2024. Leveraging the IEA’s inter-fuel and inter-regional expertise, Coal 2021 report is consistent with the assumptions and forecasts for oil, gas, electricity, renewables and energy efficiency in other agency reports. Coal 2021 places a special focus on China, whose dominance of coal markets – it is the largest consumer, producer and importer – has no parallel with any other country or any other fuel. India, the second-largest producer, consumer and importer, also receives a special attention. Whereas the current speed of policy and market changes is unprecedented, Coal 2021 looks for the underlying indicators which will determine coal markets realities through 2024. Given that coal is the largest source of electricity generation, the second-largest source of primary energy and the largest source of energy-related CO2 emissions, Coal 2021 is a must-read for anyone with an interest in energy or climate.
  • 24-January-2022

    English

    Making Dispute Resolution More Effective – MAP Peer Review Report, Brunei Darussalam (Stage 2) - Inclusive Framework on BEPS: Action 14

    Under Action 14, countries have committed to implement a minimum standard to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of the mutual agreement procedure (MAP). The MAP is included in Article 25 of the OECD Model Tax Convention and commits countries to endeavour to resolve disputes related to the interpretation and application of tax treaties. The Action 14 Minimum Standard has been translated into specific terms of reference and a methodology for the peer review and monitoring process. The peer review process is conducted in two stages. Stage 1 assesses countries against the terms of reference of the minimum standard according to an agreed schedule of review. Stage 2 focuses on monitoring the follow-up of any recommendations resulting from jurisdictions' stage 1 peer review report. This report reflects the outcome of the stage 2 peer monitoring of the implementation of the Action 14 Minimum Standard by Brunei Darussalam.
  • 24-January-2022

    English

    Making Dispute Resolution More Effective – MAP Peer Review Report, Guernsey (Stage 2) - Inclusive Framework on BEPS: Action 14

    Under Action 14, countries have committed to implement a minimum standard to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of the mutual agreement procedure (MAP). The MAP is included in Article 25 of the OECD Model Tax Convention and commits countries to endeavour to resolve disputes related to the interpretation and application of taxtreaties. The Action 14 Minimum Standard has been translated into specific terms of reference and a methodology for the peer review and monitoring process. The peer review process is conducted in two stages. Stage 1 assesses countries against the terms of reference of the minimum standard according to an agreed schedule of review. Stage 2 focuses on monitoring the follow-up of any recommendations resulting from jurisdictions' Stage 1 peer review report. This report reflects the outcome of the Stage 2 peer monitoring of the implementation of the Action 14 Minimum Standard by Guernsey, which is accompanied by a document addressing the implementation of best practices.
  • 24-January-2022

    English

    Making Dispute Resolution More Effective – MAP Peer Review Report, Jersey (Stage 2) - Inclusive Framework on BEPS: Action 14

    Under Action 14, countries have committed to implement a minimum standard to strengthen the effectiveness and efficiency of the mutual agreement procedure (MAP). The MAP is included in Article 25 of the OECD Model Tax Convention and commits countries to endeavour to resolve disputes related to the interpretation and application of tax treaties. The Action 14 Minimum Standard has been translated into specific terms of reference and a methodology for the peer review and monitoring process. The peer review process is conducted in two stages. Stage 1 assesses countries against the terms of reference of the minimum standard according to an agreed schedule of review. Stage 2 focuses on monitoring the follow-up of any recommendations resulting from jurisdictions' stage 1 peer review report. This report reflects the outcome of the stage 2 peer monitoring of the implementation of the Action 14 Minimum Standard by Jersey.
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