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Publications


  • 26-July-2022

    English

    Digital Trade Review of Brazil

    This Digital Trade Review of Brazil provides an overview of Brazil’s participation in digital trade and the related regulatory environment. It provides insights into how Brazil might ensure that the new challenges raised by the digital transformation for trade can be managed and the benefits shared more inclusively. While Brazil has embraced the digital transformation and has strong potential to benefit from digital trade, it will need to continue the ongoing process of regulatory reform. This includes reducing tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade on ICT goods; reducing regulatory barriers to ICT services; increasing engagement in international discussions on digital trade; and continuing efforts to bridge digital divides.
  • 12-July-2022

    English

    OECD Handbook on Measuring the Space Economy, 2nd Edition

    Much has changed in the space economy over the past decade, with an ever-growing number of countries and business enterprises involved in space activities. Despite progress made in the quality and availability of data, the international comparability of space economy statistics remains limited. A decade after its first publication, it is therefore time to provide an up-to-date revision of the OECD Handbook on Measuring the Space Economy to reflect the changing landscape of space activities, space technologies and subsequent evolving user needs. This new edition aims to encourage and facilitate data collection among both incumbents and new actors involved in space activities, respond to the needs of the public agencies that still fund the bulk of space programmes, and support industry and private decision-takers who will also benefit from improved statistics on the space economy.
  • 8-July-2022

    English

    SME Policy Index: Western Balkans and Turkey 2022 - Assessing the Implementation of the Small Business Act for Europe

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are essential drivers of sustainable economic growth in the Western Balkans and Turkey, where they make up 99% of all firms, generate 65% value added and account for 75% of employment. Nevertheless, SMEs across the region continue to face obstacles such as difficulties accessing financing, low levels of digital uptake, regulatory barriers and relatively low participation in international trade. The situation has been further exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic: SMEs found themselves fighting for survival amidst reduced demand, lockdowns and travel restrictions, and supply chain disruptions.  This report provides an overview of the implementation of the Small Business Act for Europe during the period 2019-22. It is designed to help policy makers design, implement and monitor policies to support the recovery of SMEs from the pandemic, boost their competitiveness based on OECD and EU good practices, and further enhance the region’s economic growth and resilience.  
  • 7-July-2022

    English

    Production Transformation Policy Review of Shenzhen, China - A Journey of Continuous Learning

    Shenzhen is a stellar case of growth and economic transformation. Since its establishment as one of China’s first four Special Economic Zones in 1980, it has evolved at breakneck speed. Shenzhen transformed from a fishing village to a major world trade hub and is now home to global innovators in electronics. The Production Transformation Policy Review (PTPR) of Shenzhen, China reviews the city’s changing policy approaches, focusing on the shift from an assembly to a manufacturing centre and more recently to an innovation and start-up hub. Through a comprehensive assessment of Shenzhen’s experience, this review offers insights into the range of policies and strategies employed to stimulate industrial upgrading and learning in China. It provides lessons and actionable policy recommendations for the growth of cities and emerging economies in their catching-up journey. The PTPR of Shenzhen, China has been carried out in the framework of the OECD Initiative for Policy Dialogue on Global Value Chains, Production Transformation and Development and has benefitted from government-business dialogues and international peer learning (University of Seoul, Korea; University of Georgetown, USA and Digital India Foundation, India).
  • 4-July-2022

    English

    Fostering a strong labour market to support the recovery and sustain growth in Switzerland

    Switzerland has a well-functioning labour market with low unemployment, a highly skilled workforce and well-paid jobs. It has proved resilient during the COVID-19 crisis, helped by extensive government support to employment and incomes. As activity recovers, the authorities face the challenge of adapting support measures to avoid hindering job reallocation and productivity growth while ensuring adequate support to vulnerable firms and workers. The pandemic has also reinforced certain pre-existing challenges. The already sizeable gender pay gap risks widening, and older workers face a higher risk of long-term unemployment. Making the labour market more inclusive would help the recovery and raise productivity. Switzerland would benefit from bringing under-represented groups more effectively into the labour market. Raising skills and lowering inequities in education and training will also be essential to facilitate job transitions and ensure that workers and firms benefit from technological change and the digital transformation.
  • 4-July-2022

    English

    Starting unequal - How’s life for disadvantaged children?

    Childhood is a crucial period in life. The things that we learn, do, and experience in childhood play a critical role in shaping who we are and who we become, and can leave lasting impressions on our lives for years to come. However, not all children have the same opportunities to enjoy good childhoods and to learn and grow in ways that set them up well for adult life. Children from socially and economically disadvantaged backgrounds are at particular risk, as this paper shows. Built using a series of key comparative indicators from the OECD Child Well being Dashboard, this paper examines how the well being of children from disadvantaged backgrounds compares both across OECD countries and relative to their more advantaged peers. Results highlight how growing up at the bottom end of the socio economic ladder leads to poorer outcomes in almost all well being areas, and how these well being inequalities are rooted in the poorer environments that disadvantaged children face at home, in school, and in the community.
  • 4-July-2022

    English

    Managing and Financing Water for Growth in Thailand - Highlights of a National Dialogue on Water

    The National Dialogue on Water in Thailand was initiated in 2021 under the regional initiative with the Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Korea (MoE), the Asia Water Council (AWC) and the OECD. The Dialogue covers two main topics selected by the Government of Thailand (ONWR). The first one is water demand management, with a focus on the Eastern Economic Corridor. The second one is financing water supply and sanitation. Both combine to support a sustainable and resilient development pathway for Thailand's fast-growing economy. The analyses and policy recommendations cover issues such as the design of economic policy instruments, water allocation regimes, increasing demand for reclaimed water, or benchmarking the performance of water utilities, and blended finance for water supply and sanitation services. They are informed by the expertise of Thai stakeholders, the OECD and the Asia Water Council. They can be a source of inspiration in other contexts in South East Asia and globally.
  • 4-July-2022

    English

    Advancing the entrepreunerial university - Lessons learned from 13 HEInnovate country reviews

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) are more critical than ever to help societies respond to the complex challenges of our times. Recognising that these challenges require HEIs to adopt holistic innovations in teaching, research and collaboration activities, the European Commission (EC) and the OECD have developed the HEInnovate guiding framework. HEInnovate promotes innovation and entrepreneurship in higher education and provides guidance to policy makers and HEIs that want to generate additional societal and economic value.This policy brief distils the main findings and recommendations of 13 HEInnovate Country Reviews that have examined higher education system and institution, identifying factors affecting the delivery of the entrepreneurial and innovation agenda in higher education. Looked at in the round, the country reviews provide HE leaders with peer-learning and best practices, policy makers with tested policy solutions and the European Union and the OECD with a deeper understanding of the state of innovation and entrepreneurship in higher education.
  • 4-July-2022

    English

    Italy's National Action Plan for Policy Coherence for Sustainable Development

    Italy's National Action Plan for Policy Coherence for Sustainable Development (PCSD) brings together the institutional mechanisms, evaluation frameworks and coherence tools needed to integrate sustainable development into government policy making. This Action Plan shows how to streamline existing mechanisms to improve policy coherence across levels of government and to involve civil society more closely in policy formulation. It also suggests how to make the most of complementarities across existing data collection efforts. The Action Plan includes suggestions for better linking mandates across departments and levels of government to avoid overlap and make greater progress in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Finally, it provides targets and measurable processes for each action to help track progress.
  • 4-July-2022

    English

    Policy brief on access to finance for inclusive and social entrepreneurship - What role can fintech and financial literacy play?

    This policy brief on access to finance for inclusive and social entrepreneurship was produced by the OECD and the European Commission. It presents evidence on the access to finance challenges faced by entrepreneurs from under-represented and disadvantaged groups and social entrepreneurs, and discusses how public policy could harness the potential of fintech to address these challenges. This covers crowdfunding, blockchain and the application of big data to finance for inclusive and social entrepreneurship. The policy brief also discusses the growing need for governments to strengthen financial literacy among the target groups of inclusive and social entrepreneurship policy, including with respect to fintech. Different policy approaches are discussed, including embedding financial literacy training in financial intermediation.
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