The primary goal of the case studies is to understand how ICT relates to educational innovation. Within the OECD countries two far-reaching changes are occurring in K-12 schooling. First, a variety of instructional reforms are under way, driven by a perceived need to reorient schooling from rote learning, shallow but wide coverage, and individualistic learning processes to higher level skills, problem solving, in depth study, and collaborative learning. These reforms take different forms in different countries. Some are using curriculum standards and performance assessments to drive teachers and administrators to account for the success of all learners, including especially those traditionally marginalised. Other countries are depending more on improved staff development and revised curricula, emphasising learning to learn ability as well as interactive, collaborative skills. Life-long learning is also a major concern of the OECD countries, although policies and programs to stimulate and improve this area are not often visible at the K-12 levels.