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Reports


  • 13-April-2021

    English

    What future for science, technology and innovation after COVID-19?

    The COVID-19 crisis may bring lasting socioeconomic changes, also affecting science, technology and innovation (STI). This paper discusses the effects that the COVID-19 crisis could have on the future of STI and its policies, building on lessons learned from past crises, an analysis of diverse sources of early data and insights from expert discussions in international policy fora. Factors shaping the future of STI include the unequal effects of the crisis on R&D spending across sectors, the accelerated adoption of digital tools and techniques, and changes in the openness and inclusiveness of research and innovation ecosystems. The paper also explores how STI policy could experience fundamental changes as resilience, environmental sustainability and inclusiveness become more prominent objectives on policy agendas. This includes experimentation with new data and digital tools for policy purposes and unconventional policy approaches, which could spur the adoption of new and more effective STI policies.
  • 12-April-2021

    English, PDF, 2,262kb

    Steel production capacity and trade dynamics

    One of the main concerns regarding excess capacity in the global steel market is how it affects international trade dynamics. An analysis of bilateral trade patterns reveals that capacity increases are likely to inflate exports after one year-on average and are likely to have persistent effect on trade.

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  • 9-April-2021

    English

    Report on China’s shipbuilding industry and policies affecting it

    This report analyses the structural characteristics of China’s shipbuilding industry, notably through comparison of other major shipbuilding economies. Building upon previous reports drafted in 2008 and 2011, it aims to analyse China’s shipbuilding sector from a holistic and multidisciplinary perspective (e.g. the interconnection between trade, competition, monetary, financial, fiscal and industrial policies), with a particular emphasis on government support measures. Key findings from these analyses suggest that: 1) China’s shipbuilding industry has been labelled as a strategic industry, which may equally explain China’s intention to move up the shipbuilding value chain, 2) State-owned conglomerates hold a lot of influence in China’s shipbuilding industry, 3) Government support to the Chinese shipbuilding industry is alleged to have contributed to global excess capacity.
  • 8-April-2021

    English

    Investment policies related to national security and public order

    While foreign investment supports growth and development, creates jobs and enhances welfare, it carries a potential risk for the host country’s national security or public order. This is why international instruments and agreements recognise countries’ rights to manage such risks.

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  • 2-April-2021

    English

    Blueprint for improved measurement of the international ocean economy - An exploration of satellite accounting for ocean economic activity

    Sustainably managing the ocean requires reliable measures of the ocean’s contributions to society and the effects that human activities have on the marine environment. This paper informs current international discussions on the measurement of ocean economic activities. It summarises the extent to which the ocean is crucial to society, outlines national approaches to measuring ocean economies, establishes an OECD definition of ocean economic activities for statistical purposes, and introduces a plan to improve international ocean economy statistics through the pragmatic development of satellite accounts. By measuring the full range of ocean economic activities, this framework will improve evidence on ocean sustainability and lay the foundations for ocean accounts that include economic-environmental linkages.
  • 30-March-2021

    English

    MultiProd: Uncovering the micro drivers of aggregate productivity

    The MultiProd project studies productivity patterns and investigates the extent to which different policy frameworks can shape firm productivity. It examines the way resources are allocated to more productive firms.

  • 30-March-2021

    English

    Middle East and North Africa Investment Policy Perspectives

    Middle East and North Africa Investment Policy Perspectives highlights the considerable progress in investment policies made by the region’s governments over the past decade. Yet, the reform momentum needs to be sustained and deepened for the benefits of investment to be shared with society at large and for growth to be sustainable, particularly in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and resulting global economic upheaval. The publication takes stock of investment policy trends and reforms in Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, the Palestinian Authority, and Tunisia, and draws out common challenges, offering suggestions of reform priorities. It considers several dimensions of the policy framework that affect the investment climate and places strong emphasis on how foreign investment can help economies of the region improve their citizens’ lives. The publication serves as reference point, informing policymakers on specific areas as they continue work on leveraging investment to advance inclusive and sustainable growth.
  • 30-March-2021

    English

    The spatial dimension of productivity in Italian co-operatives

    This report explores the spatial dimension of productivity in the co-operatives of Italy, a country where they make up a relatively large share of total national employment. Co-operatives play a countercyclical role in job creation during crises. In a post-pandemic world, they could make a major contribution to steering the economy towards inclusiveness and sustainability. Productivity growth ensures that co-operatives can achieve both economic and social goals in the future. This report applies a place-based approach to investigate the issue of productivity in co-operatives, given their many interdependencies with local communities. Novel evidence points to the local factors that are linked with the concentration and productivity of co-operatives across regions, sectors and firm size classes in Italy. A comparison with other Italian firms as well as with Spanish co-operatives and other Spanish firms serves to illustrate how productivity performance varies across space and firm types. This report constitutes an empirical test for the analytical approach developed by the OECD Spatial Productivity Lab.
  • 25-March-2021

    English

    Demand for AI skills in jobs - Evidence from online job postings

    This report presents new evidence about occupations requiring artificial intelligence (AI)-related competencies, based on online job posting data and previous work on identifying and measuring developments in AI. It finds that the total number of AI-related jobs increased over time in the four countries considered – Canada, Singapore, the United Kingdom and the United States – and that a growing number of jobs require multiple AI-related skills. Skills related to communication, problem solving, creativity and teamwork gained relative importance over time, as did complementary software-related and AI-specific competencies. As expected, many AI-related jobs are posted in categories such as 'professionals' and 'technicians and associated professionals', though AI-related skills are in demand, to varying degrees, across almost all sectors of the economy. In all countries considered, the sectors 'Information and Communication', 'Financial and Insurance Activities' and 'Professional, Scientific and Technical Activities' are the most AI job-intensive.
  • 24-March-2021

    English

    International investment law

    The OECD is a forum where treaty negotiators and experts from OECD and non-OECD countries work together to enhance common understanding of core treaty provisions and emerging legal issues and to improve outcomes of international investment treaties for governments and investors. This page provides a comprehensive overview of OECD work in this domain.

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