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Reports


  • 26-January-2021

    English

    Managing tourism development for sustainable and inclusive recovery

    Despite the significant negative impacts of COVID-19 on tourism, the crisis is providing an opportunity to rethink tourism for the future. Achieving this greener and more sustainable tourism recovery, calls for a greater policy focus on the environmental and socio-cultural pillars of sustainability. The paper focuses on five main pillars of policy solutions, and best practices, to help destinations rebuild and flourish in this dramatically changed policy context for tourism development. Recommended policy solutions aim to: i) rethink tourism success, ii) adopt an integrated policy-industry-community approach, iii) mainstream sustainable policies and practices, iv) develop more sustainable tourism business models, and v) implement better measure to better manage. The report presents a selection of 9 case studies on destination strategies to support a sustainable and inclusive recovery.
  • 26-January-2021

    English

    OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Thailand

    Thailand has had a remarkable economic development trajectory over the past 60 years and foreign direct investment (FDI) has been pivotal in this success. Thailand was one of the first movers in opening up to manufacturing FDI and in establishing proactive investment promotion and facilitation policies. While challenges remain in some areas of responsible business conduct, there is strong political will to address them. Thailand aspires to become a high income economy by 2037 by upgrading to a value based green economy. Inward FDI will play a prominent role in achieving this goal but this requires a concerted effort to reform the investment climate to remain an attractive host to foreign investment and to benefit to the full extent from that investment. While the COVID-19 crisis might temporarily delay progress, the policy recommendations in this review draw attention to potential reform priorities to help Thailand fulfil its development ambitions aligned with the Sustainable Development Goals and to contribute to a more inclusive and sustainable recovery from the pandemic.
  • 22-January-2021

    English

    SME and Entrepreneurship Policy in Viet Nam

    This publication presents the findings of the OECD review of SME and Entrepreneurship Policy in Viet Nam. It offers an in-depth examination of the performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and entrepreneurship in Viet Nam, the quality of the business environment, and national policies in support of new and small businesses. The report shows that Viet Nam is one of the most globally integrated economies in the world, building its solid growth performance on the attraction of foreign direct investments and export promotion. Viet Nam’s business environment has considerably improved in recent years, although important reforms are still needed in certain policy areas. Viet Nam's SMEs contribute to national employment and national GDP proportionally less than in the OECD area, although official statistics do not take into consideration the large informal sector that mostly consists of self-employed people and micro-enterprises. Viet Nam’s SME and entrepreneurship policies are relatively new, dating back to the early 2000s. In this respect, the 2018 SME Support Law is an important milestone which may help address some of the challenges that are holding back the development of a more vigorous domestic enterprise sector. Key policy priorities in this regard, building better business linkages between multinationals and local enterprises and stronger business development services, are the subjects of two thematic chapters of the report.
  • 22-January-2021

    English

    Liquidity shortfalls during the COVID-19 outbreak: Assessment and policy responses

    The paper investigates the financial vulnerability of non-financial firms during the Coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic crisis. In particular, it evaluates the extent to which firms may run into a liquidity crisis following the COVID-19 outbreak and the impact of stylised policy measures to reduce the risks and depth of such crisis. The analysis relies on three ingredients: a simple accounting model, a large dataset reporting firms’ balance sheets for 14 countries and granular data on the magnitude of the shock measuring the impact of confinement measures on economic activity (notably depending on the capacity of each sector to operate by teleworking). Results suggest that, without any policy intervention, up to 38% of firms would face liquidity shortfalls after 10 months since the implementation of confinement measures. Comparing the impact of different policies (tax deferral, debt moratorium and support to wage payments), the analysis shows that government support to relieve wage bills is the most effective tool to reduce liquidity shortages, followed by debt moratorium policies. Finally, the paper zooms into labour market policies and compares the costefficiency of short-term work and wage subsidies schemes, highlighting how their relative efficiency depends on their design.
  • 21-January-2021

    English, PDF, 852kb

    Declining business dynamism: Cross-country evidence, drivers and the role of policy - policy note

    A recent OECD study analyses the trends in business dynamism using harmonised data across 18 countries and 22 industries over the period 2000-15. It shows that entry rates and job reallocation rates experienced a pervasive slowdown over this period, declining on average by three and five percentage points, respectively.

  • 19-January-2021

    English

    FDI Qualities Assessment of Ireland

    This report, jointly developed by the OECD and IDA Ireland, examines the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) attracted to Ireland from 2006 to 2016 and provides an overview of the direct contribution and spillover effects of this investment on the local economy. The analysis pre-dates the COVID-19 pandemic and does not take account of the impact of this phenomenon on foreign investment in Ireland.

    Related Documents
  • 18-January-2021

    English

    The effects of online disclosure about personalised pricing on consumers - Results from a lab experiment in Ireland and Chile

    Online personalised pricing is a form of price discrimination that involves charging different prices to different consumers, often based on a consumer’s personal data. Policymakers are currently discussing ways to protect consumers from potential adverse effects of personalised pricing. One option involves displaying disclosures on the websites of retailers that use personalised pricing, in order for consumers to make informed purchase decisions. This paper summarizes findings from a laboratory experiment on the effects that online disclosures about personalised pricing have on consumers. Results from the experiment suggest that online disclosures have only limited effects on consumers’ ability to identify and comprehend online personalised pricing, and cannot confirm a significant effect on participants’ purchasing behaviour. Results from a questionnaire distributed to participants reveal that on average personalised pricing is considered an unfair practice that should be prohibited.
  • 18-January-2021

    English

    Scale, market power and competition in a digital world - Is bigger better?

    This report assesses the impact of digitalisation on competition by examining the evolution of mark-ups and multifactor productivity (MFP) across firms of different sizes. It finds that size is positively related to mark-ups and that this relationship has strengthened over time. This trend has been accompanied by an increase in the relative productivity advantage of larger firms and both changes are more pronounced in digital-intensive sectors, suggesting that digitalisation may be an underlying driver. Policy makers may need to consider appropriate responses if digital technologies affect larger and smaller firms in a heterogeneous manner.
  • 12-January-2021

    English

    OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook 2021 - Times of Crisis and Opportunity

    In immediate responses to the COVID-19 crisis, science and innovation are playing essential roles in providing a better scientific understanding of the virus, as well as in the development of vaccines, treatments and diagnostics. Both the public and private sectors have poured billions of dollars into these efforts, accompanied by unprecedented levels of global cooperation. However, the economic crisis that is currently unfolding is expected to severely curtail research and innovation expenditures in firms, while debt-laden governments will face multiple, competing demands for financial support. These developments threaten to cause long-term damage to innovation systems at a time when science and innovation are most needed to deal with the climate emergency, meet the Sustainable Development Goals, and accelerate the digital transformation. Governments will need to take measures to protect their innovation systems as part of their stimulus and recovery packages, but should also use these as opportunities for reforms. In particular, science, technology and innovation (STI) policy should shift towards supporting a more ambitious agenda of system transformation that promotes a managed transition to more sustainable, equitable and resilient futures.
  • 24-December-2020

    English

    Decarbonising Azerbaijan's Transport System - Charting the Way Forward

    This paper reviews opportunities and challenges for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from Azerbaijan’s transport sector. It provides an overview of Azerbaijan’s transport system and reviews the country’s existing policies and future plans for reducing CO2 emissions from transport. The paper also provides an overview of the data on transport activity and emissions available for Azerbaijan, and the tools used by government agencies for assessing them. Finally, it proposes options for further action in the context of ITF’s 'Decarbonising Transport in Emerging Economies' (DTEE) project.
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