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Reports


  • 14-December-2021

    English

    Preparing the tourism workforce in Portugal for the digital future

    After a decade of steady growth, the tourism sector in Portugal is facing its most acute challenge in modern times, in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. As inbound visitors return to Portugal, the tourism workforce will need digital skills to make effective use of new technologies, and exploit the opportunities digitalisation is opening up for marketing, as well as product and destination development. Successful digital uptake by businesses will be a driving force in building recovery and resilience in the longer term. While there has been progress in recent years, especially in response to the pandemic, there remains considerable scope to go further. To support this digital transformation, this report examines and assesses current policy approaches to support digital skills and workforce development in the sector, and presents a selection of policy considerations to: i) address digital transformation gaps, shortages and opportunities for workforce organisation and skills development, and ii) enhance governance mechanisms to support the digital skills transformation of the tourism workforce.
  • 14-December-2021

    English

    Enhancing the impact of Italy’s start-up visa - What can be learnt from international practice?

    Italy’s start-up visa aims to make the national start-up ecosystem more easily accessible to foreign talent, rich with knowledge and skills, and more integrated into global markets. Government reports show that the programme has not yet achieved a critical scale. The analysis of similar initiatives in Chile, France, Ireland and Portugal identifies five gateways for attracting more foreign entrepreneurs, such as an effective policy outreach, smooth inter-institutional co-operation across the migratory process, and the provision of sound support services for a 'soft landing' of entrepreneurs upon arrival. These takeaways may also inform new talent attraction policies targeting remote workers, an expanding group in the context of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
  • 13-December-2021

    English

    Developing Innovative Mobility Solutions in the Brussels-Capital Region

    This report provides recommendations for regulatory and data governance frameworks to support the development of Mobility as a Service (MaaS) in the Brussels-Capital Region. These highlight the need to enable the development of a competitive and innovative MaaS ecosystem, with both public and private actors, in order to maximise the likelihood that sustainable MaaS business models will be developed. The work identifies the necessary scope of a new legal framework for MaaS and recommends how the existing regulation of mobility operators should be modified in order to integrate effectively with the MaaS framework. Finally, the work also addresses key data governance requirements, including data protection, transfer and reporting needed to support the development of MaaS.
  • 6-December-2021

    English

    The human side of productivity - Uncovering the role of skills and diversity for firm productivity

    Relying on linked employer-employee datasets from 10 countries, this paper documents that the skills and the diversity of the workforce and of managers – the human side of businesses – account on average for about one third of the labour productivity gap between firms at the productivity 'frontier' (the top 10% within each detailed industry) and medium performers at the 40-60 percentile of the productivity distribution. The composition of skills, especially the share of high skills, varies the most along the productivity distribution, but low and medium skilled employees make up a substantial share of the workforce even at the frontier. High skills show positive but decreasing productivity returns. Moreover, the skill mix of top firms varies markedly across countries, pointing to the role of different strategies pursued by firms in different policy environments. We also find that managerial skills play a particularly important role, also through complementarities with worker skills. Gender and cultural diversity among managers – and to a lesser extent, among workers – is positively related to firm productivity as well. We discuss public policies that can facilitate the catch-up of firms below the frontier through skills and diversity. These cover a wide range of areas, exerting their influence through three main channels: the supply, upgrading and the matching across firms (the SUM) of skills and other human factors.
  • 30-November-2021

    English

    Internationalisation of the next Smart Specialisation Strategy - Opportunities and barriers in the Friuli Venezia Giulia region

    Smart Specialisation Strategy is a place-based EU policy that seeks to enhance regional competitiveness through leveraging and bolstering innovation in the selected priority areas (industries or technologies) in each region. The new iteration of S3 requires developing cross-border collaborations with regions possessing complex and complementary technological expertise currently missing in a region to upgrade its technological evolution. The reason for this is that new growth opportunities arise from recombining existing technological capabilities while more complex technologies offer strong competitive advantage. This paper presents a simple roadmap for regional S3 internationalisation and the results of an in-depth case study on the opportunities for and barriers to S3 internationalisation in Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG), a region in the North East of Italy. The paper develops recommendations on how to make the most of the Research, Technology, Development and Innovation endowments in FVG through enhancing the innovation-internationalisation nexus in order to improve competitiveness of the region.
  • 29-November-2021

    English

    The Missing Entrepreneurs 2021 - Policies for Inclusive Entrepreneurship and Self-Employment

    The Missing Entrepreneurs 2021 is the sixth edition in a series of biennial reports that examine how public policies at national, regional and local levels can support job creation, economic growth and social inclusion by overcoming obstacles to business start-ups and self-employment by people from disadvantaged or under-represented groups in entrepreneurship. It shows that there are substantial untapped opportunities for entrepreneurship in populations such as women, youth, the unemployed, and immigrants and highlights the need for more differentiated government entrepreneurship policies that respond to the specific barriers they face. The report includes an assessment of the impact of COVID-19 across these populations of entrepreneurs and the effectiveness of the policy response. It also contains thematic policy chapters on microfinance and leveraging the potential of immigrant entrepreneurs. These chapters present the range of current policy actions in EU and OECD countries and make recommendations for future policy directions. Finally, the report contains country profiles for each of the 27 EU Member States that identify for each county the major recent trends in entrepreneurship by women, youth, seniors and immigrants, the key policy issues and the recent policy actions.
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  • 23-November-2021

    English

    Social vouchers - Innovative tools for social inclusion and local development

    This paper explores the role of social vouchers as a tool for social inclusion and local development. It presents a typology of vouchers and their objectives, governing institutional and regulatory frameworks, use by national and local governments, and the social economy (Section1). It analyses the challenges and opportunities for the development of vouchers in light of the COVID-19 crisis and suggests recommendations to effectively capitalise on social vouchers as a tool to 'build back better' (Section 2). Finally, it illustrates and analyses specific cases in Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, France, Mexico, Morocco and Romania (Section 3).
  • 22-November-2021

    English

    The future of remote work - Opportunities and policy options for Trentino

    Public policy can play an important role in steering the large-scale diffusion of teleworking. Various communities around the world are experimenting with innovative solutions. In Italy, the Autonomous Province of Trento has plans to design a comprehensive plan for teleworking as a way to foster local economic and social development. Opportunities and challenges for a smooth transition to an ever more hybrid work environment are explored in view of a number of societal objectives, including an improvement in living standards, territorial cohesion and competitiveness. The paper identifies six policy areas for recommendations, reflecting the conditions needed to achieve these objectives.
  • 17-November-2021

    Spanish, PDF, 4,709kb

    Flujos de oro desde Venezuela - Apoyo a la diligencia debida en la producción y comercio de oro

    Este nuevo informe de la OCDE examina los riesgos de corrupción, financiamiento de conflictos y lavado de dinero vinculados a los flujos de oro de Venezuela.

  • 17-November-2021

    English

    Entrepreneurship in Regional Innovation Clusters - Case Study of Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai, Thailand

    This report evaluates how to strengthen Thailand's SME and entrepreneurship policies to promote innovative entrepreneurship and SME innovation at regional level. This is critical in supporting a shift towards a more innovation-driven and regionally-balanced economy in Thailand. The report illustrates the needs by taking a specific policy case, namely activating new and small firms in the development of an innovation cluster in the advanced agriculture and biotechnology and food for the future sectors in Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai regions in northern Thailand. The report examines policy options in four major areas affecting the cluster: strengthening the local entrepreneurship ecosystem for example in scale-up finance and entrepreneurial culture; upgrading business development services so they that the match the requirements of SME innovation; attracting foreign direct investment and brokering supply chain linkages with local SMEs; and creating a cluster management organisation to co-ordinate policy. The report makes policy recommendations illustrated by international inspiring policy practice examples in each area. It shares a vision for translating Thailand's new-found biotechnology research strengths into economic development by stimulating innovation absorption by SMEs and commercialisation by start-ups and scale-ups.
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