Bank lending is the most common source of external finance for many SMEs and entrepreneurs, yet has proven challenging to newer, innovative and fast growing companies, as well as to those undertaking important transitions in their activities or seeking to de-leverage and improve their capital structures.
This report maps a broad range of external financing techniques to address diverse needs in varying circumstances, including asset-based finance, alternative debt, hybrid instruments, and equity instruments. It further highlights key enabling factors for their development, discusses major market trends and obstacles to SME uptake, and suggests some key areas of policy action to overcome challenges to market development.
Science, technology and innovation foster competitiveness, productivity and growth. Over 200 indicators in the OECD Science, Technology and Industry (STI) Scoreboard show how OECD and major non-OECD economies are starting to move beyond the crisis, increasingly investing in the future.
The charts and underlying data in the OECD STI Scoreboard 2015 are available for download and selected indicators contain additional data expanding the time and country coverage of the print edition.
This publication examines the major policy challenges, achievements and next steps for the creation of a more entrepreneurial population and a stronger SME sector in the Russian Federation, which are critical to the country’s economic growth and diversification. Despite less regulatory burdens and more subsidy financing for start-ups, production modernisation, innovation and exporting, framework conditions need to be improved in areas such as the rule of law, commercialising science and improving entrepreneurial skills and education. Gaps in SME and entrepreneurship programmes also need to be filled, such as through new initiatives for high-growth firms and large firm-SME linkages. Strengthening business development services infrastructure and improving access to finance are further important challenges. All these improvements will need to be spread across the regions of the Russian Federation if national objectives for growth and balanced spatial development are to be met.
The European Union’s Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine) struggle with environmental challenges related to the consumption and end-of-life management of many harmful products. This policy manual considers the potential use and implementation of four categories of product-related economic instruments to address some of these challenges: product taxes, tax differentiation based on environmental factors, deposit-refund systems and extended producer responsibility (EPR).
Today, the generation and use of huge volumes of data are redefining our “intelligence” capacity and our social and economic landscapes, spurring new industries, processes and products, and creating significant competitive advantages. In this sense, data-driven innovation (DDI) has become a key pillar of 21st-century growth, with the potential to significantly enhance productivity, resource efficiency, economic competitiveness, and social well-being.
Greater access to and use of data create a wide array of impacts and policy challenges, ranging from privacy and consumer protection to open access issues and measurement concerns, across public and private health, legal and science domains. This report aims to improve the evidence base on the role of DDI for promoting growth and well-being, and provide policy guidance on how to maximise the benefits of DDI and mitigate the associated economic and societal risks.
The objective of the Policy Framework for Investment (PFI) is to mobilise private investment that supports steady economic growth and sustainable development, contributing to the economic and social well-being of people around the world. Drawing on international good practices, the PFI proposes guidance in policy fields critically important for improving the quality of a country’s enabling environment for investment. It encourages policy makers to ask appropriate questions about their economy, their institutions and their policy settings to identify priorities, to develop an effective set of policies and to evaluate progress. First developed in 2006, the PFI was updated in 2015 to take into account feedback from numerous users at country and regional levels, as well as changes in the global economic landscape.
The Capital Movements Code provides a balanced framework for capital account openness. It is the only multilateral legal instrument with comprehensive coverage of capital movements. This includes inflows and outflows, long-term and short-term operations.
Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) are important for their contribution to employment, innovation, economic growth and diversity. This report examines the tax treatment of SMEs, the case for SME preferences, and the use of tax preferences and simplification measures for SMEs in thirty-nine OECD and G20 countries. It finds that many of the tax systems examined provide incentives to incorporate and to distribute income in certain types of capital form. Ideally, taxes should be neutral with regard to the business decisions of SMEs, including decisions related to their creation, form and growth. However, certain features of the tax system may disproportionately affect SMEs, for example, the asymmetric treatment of profits and losses, a bias toward debt over corporate equity, and the higher fixed costs of tax and regulatory compliance for small businesses. This report recommends that measures designed to address these concerns be carefully targeted to affected firms and seek to avoid introducing further distortions and complexity.
English, PDF, 168kb
Presented to G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors in September 2015, this document provides an update on progress in cooperation on respective approaches to measures that are both macro-prudential measures (MPMs) and capital flow management measures (CFMs).
In 2014, many countries implemented the latest international guidelines for compiling FDI statistics. The new standards have resulted in significant changes in FDI statistics, including new measures of FDI at the global level.