Industry and entrepreneurship

Enabling the Next Production Revolution


The next production revolution is occuring through because of a confluence of technologies. These range from a variety of digital technologies (e.g. 3D printing, the Internet of Things, advanced robotics) and new materials (e.g. bio- or nano-based) to new processes (e.g. datadriven production, artificial intelligence, synthetic biology). This report examines the economic and policy ramifications of a set of technologies likely to be important for production over the near term (to around 2030). As these technologies transform production, they will have far-reaching consequences for productivity, employment, skills, income distribution, trade, well-being and the environment.



The Next Production Revolution


Executive summary

 (also available in Italian)

Key issues and policy proposals


Benefits and challenges of digitalising production


Bioproduction and the bioeconomy


Tapping nanotechnology's potential to shape the NPR


3D printing and its environmental implications


Revolutionising product design and performance with materials innovation


The NPR and institutions for technology diffusion


Public acceptance and emerging production technologies


The role of foresight in shaping the NPR


Emerging manufacturing R&D priorities and policies for the NPR


The rise of advanced manufacturing institutes in the United States


China and the NPR


Enabling the Next Production Revolution

Policy makers in some countries fear that their current infrastructure, regulatory conditions and education and training systems might not be well suited for future technological change. Countries which fail to adequately prepare could lose income and growth opportunities. Our objectives are to: 

  • Inform governments of possible science and technology-driven developments in selected production technologies over the next 10-15 years. 
  • Outline the risks and opportunities related to the economy, society, well-being and the environment that may be created by such changes. 
  • Examine policies that could help to cope with risks and realise the opportunities.
  • Assess how policymakers prepare for the future and what best-practice constitutes.
  • Assess the effectiveness and efficiency of measures used to support sectors deemed strategic. 

Several of the themes covered in the publication will continue to be elaborated in the OECD's work. For instance, future work in the context of  will assess the evolving role of artificial intelligence in production.



  • On 10 May 2017, the Italian Ministry of Economic Development organised the launch of the report “The Next Production Revolution: Implications for Governments and Business” within the framework of the 2017 Italian G7 Presidency. Read more


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